Baptist Confession of Faith, 1689
(With slight revisions by Charles Haddon Spurgeon Scriptural Reference Included)

(Sorry – still editing)

Edited with a Study Guide added by

Dr. Stanford E. Murrell

“This little volume is not issued as an authoritative rule, or code of faith, whereby you are to be fettered, but as an assistance to you in controversy, a confirmation in faith, and a means of edification in righteous- ness. Here the younger members of our church will have a body of divinity in small compass, and by means of the Scriptural proofs, will be ready to give a reason for the hope that is in them. Be not ashamed of your faith; remember it is the ancient gospel of martyrs, confessors, reformers and saints. Above all, it is the truth of God, against which the gates of Hell cannot prevail. Let your lives adorn your faith, let your example adorn your creed. Above all live in Christ Jesus, and walk in Him, giving credence to no teaching but that which is manifestly approved of Him, and owned by the Holy Spirit. Cleave fast to the Word of God which is here mapped out for you.”

Charles Haddon Spurgeon

Table of Contents

Chapter

The Holy Scriptures
God and the Holy Trinity
God’s Decree
Creation
Divine Providence
The Fall of Man, Sin and Punishment
God’s Covenant
Christ the Mediator
Free Will
Effectual Calling
Justification
Adoption
Sanctification
Saving Faith
Repentance and Salvation
Good Works
The Perseverance of the Saints
Assurance of Salvation
The Law of God
The Gospel and its Influence
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience
Worship and the Sabbath Day
Lawful Oaths and Vows
The Civil Magistrate
Marriage
The Church
The Communion of Saints
Baptism and the Lord’s Supper
Baptism
The Lord’s Supper
Man’s State after Death and the Resurrection
The Last Judgment

Chapter 1

The Holy Scriptures

1. The Holy Scripture is the only sufficient, certain, and infallible [without error] rule of all saving knowledge, faith, and obedience.

♦ 2 Timothy 3:15-17 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16

All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

♦ Isaiah 8:20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

♦ Luke 16:29, 31 Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets; let them hear them. And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.

♦ Ephesians 2:20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

Although the light of nature and the works of creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God as to leave man inexcusable, yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God and His will which is necessary for salvation.

♦ Romans 1:19-21 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: 21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened.

♦ Romans 2:14, 15 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: 15 Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

♦ Psalm 19:1-3 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork. 2 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge. 3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

Therefore it pleased the Lord at sundry [various] times and in divers [different] manners to reveal Himself, and to declare His will unto to His church;

♦ Hebrews 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,

and afterward, for the better preserving and propagating [advancement] of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the church, against the corruption of the flesh and the malice [evil intent] of Satan and of the world, it pleased the Lord to commit the same [i.e., His revealed Truth] wholly unto writing; which maketh the Holy Scriptures to be most necessary; those former ways by which God revealed His will unto His people being [i.e., having] now ceased.

♦ Proverbs 22:19-21 That thy trust may be in the LORD, I have made known to thee this day, even to thee. 20 Have not I written to thee excellent things in counsels and knowledge, 21 That I might make thee know the certainty of the words of truth; that thou mightest answer the words of truth to them that send unto thee?

♦ Romans 15:4 For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope.

♦ 2 Peter 1:19-20 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.

2. Under the name [title] of Holy Scripture (or the Word of God written) are now contained all the following books of the Old and New Testament:

OF THE OLD TESTAMENT

Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Esther
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Solomon
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah 39.

OF THE NEW TESTAMENT

Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
I Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation
Ed Note. There are sixty-six books in the Bible; thirty-nine books in the Old Testament, twenty-seven books in the New Testament.

All of which [books] are given by the inspiration [Gr. theopneustos (theh-op’-nyoostos), divinely breathed in] of God to be the rule of faith and life.

♦ 2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:

The books commonly called The Apocrypha not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon or rule of Scripture and are therefore of no authority to the church of God, nor [are they] to be approved of or made use of any differently from other human writings.
♦ Luke 24:27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.

♦ Luke 24:44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me.

♦ Romans 3:2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.

Ed Note. The Apocrypha refers to the books included in the Septuagint [Greek version of the Old Testament] and Vulgate [Latin version of the Bible], but absent from the Hebrew Bible. The following is a list of the books in the Apocrypha in the order in which they occur in the English versions (King James Version and the Revised Standard Version (British and American). The list of books:

1 Esdras
2 Esdras (to be hereafter called “The Apocalyptic Esdras”)
Tobit
Judith
The Rest of Esther
The Wisdom of Solomon
Ecclesiasticus (to be hereafter called “Sirach”)
Baruch, with the Epistle of Jeremiah
The Song of the Three Holy Children
The History of Susanna
Bel and the Dragon
The Prayer of Manasses
1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees

3. The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed, dependeth [depends] not on the testimony of any man or church, but wholly upon God (Who is Truth itself); the Author thereof. Therefore it is to be received because it is the Word of God.
♦ 2 Peter 1:19-21 We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: 20 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

♦ 2 Timothy 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:

♦ 1 John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

4. We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the people of God to gain a high and reverent estimation of the Holy Scriptures. We may be similarly affected by the nature of the Scriptures-the heavenliness of the contents, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God, the full disclosure it makes of the only way of man’s salvation, together with many other incomparable excellencies and entire perfections. By all the evidence the Scripture more than proves itself to be the Word of God.
Yet, notwithstanding this, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth of Scripture and its divine authority, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.

♦ John 16:13, 14 Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come. 14 He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and shall shew it unto you.

♦ 1 Corinthians 2:10-12 But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 21 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.

♦ 1 John 2:20 But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.

♦ 1 John 2:27 But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him.

5. The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for His own glory,man’s salvation, faith and life, is either expressly set down or necessarily contained in the Holy Scripture, to which nothing is to be added at any time, either by new revelation of the Spirit, or by the traditions of men.
2 Timothy 3:15-17 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: 17 That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works.

♦ Galatians 1:8-9 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed. 9 As we said before, so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel unto you than that ye have received, let him be accursed.

Nevertheless, we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word.

♦ John 6:45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

♦ 1 Corinthians 2:9-12 But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him. 10 But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. 11 For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? Even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. 12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.

There are some circumstances concerning the worship of God and church government which are common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word which are always to be observed.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:13-14 Judge in yourselves: is it comely that a woman pray unto God uncovered? 14 Doth not even nature itself teach you, that, if a man have long hair, it is a shame unto him?

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:26 How is it then, brethren? When ye come together, every one of you hath a psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all things be done unto edifying.

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:40 Let all things be done decently and in order.

6. All things in scripture are not equally plain in themselves, nor equally clear to everyone,
♦ 2 Peter 3:16 As also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things; in which are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable wrest, as they do also the other scriptures, unto their own destruction.

yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed and observed for salvation, are so clearly propounded and revealed in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the educated but also the uneducated may attain a sufficient understanding of them by the due use of ordinary means.

♦ Psalm 19:7 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.

♦ Psalm 119:130 The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding unto the simple.

7. The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old),
♦ Romans 3:2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.

and the New Testament in Greek (which at the time of its writing was most generally known to the nations) were immediately inspired by God, and were kept pure through subsequent ages by His singular care and providence. They are therefore authentic, so that in all controversies of religion, the church must appeal to them as final.

♦ Isaiah 8:20 To the law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

But because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God who have a right to, and an interest in the Scriptures, and who are commanded to read ♦ Acts 15:15 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, and search them

♦ John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.

in the fear of God, the Scriptures are therefore to be translated into the ordinary language of every nation into which they come,

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:6 Now, brethren, if I come unto you speaking with tongues, what shall I profit you, except I shall speak to you either by revelation, or by knowledge, or by prophesying, or by doctrine?

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:9 So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue words easy to be understood, how shall it be known what is spoken? for ye shall speak into the air.

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:11-12 Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me. 12 Even so ye, forasmuch as ye are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek that ye may excel to the edifying of the church.

1 Corinthians 14:24 But if all prophesy, and there come in one that believeth not, or one unlearned, he is convinced of all, he is judged of all:

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:28 But if there be no interpreter, let him keep silence in the church; and let him speak to himself, and to God.

so that, with the Word of God living richly in all, people may worship God in an acceptable manner, and through patience and comfort of the Scriptures may have hope.

♦ Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.

8. The infallible rule for the interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself, and therefore whenever there is a question about the true and full sense of any scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched by other passages which speak more clearly.
♦ 2 Peter 1:20-21 Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 21 For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.

♦ Acts 15:15-16 And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, 16After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up:

9. The supreme judge, by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and by which must be examined all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, and doctrines of men and private spirits can be no other than the Holy Scripture, delivered by the Spirit. And in the sentence of Scripture we are to rest, for it is in Scripture, delivered by the Spirit, that our faith is finally resolved.
♦ Matthew 22:29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.

♦ Matthew 22:31 But as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying,

♦ Ephesians 2:20 And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone;

♦ Acts 28:23 And when they had appointed him a day, there came many to him into his lodging; to whom he expounded and testified the kingdom of God, persuading them concerning Jesus, both out of the law of Moses, and out of the prophets, from morning till evening.

Chapter 2

God and the Holy Trinity

1. The Lord our God is the one and only living and true God;
♦ 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6 As concerning therefore the eating of those things that are offered in sacrifice unto idols, we know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is none other God but one. 6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

♦ Deuteronomy 6:4 Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD:

2. Whose subsistence is in and of Himself

♦ Jeremiah 10:10 But the LORD is the true God, he is the living God, and an everlasting king: at his wrath the earth shall tremble, and the nations shall not be able to abide his indignation.

♦ Isaiah 48:12 Hearken unto me, O Jacob and Israel, my called; I am he; I am the first, I also am the last.

3. Who is infinite in being and perfection; Whose essence cannot be comprehended by any but Himself;

♦ Exodus 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

4. Who is a most pure spirit,

♦ John 4:24 God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.

invisible, without body, parts, or passions Who only has immortality Who dwells in the light which no man can approach,

♦ 1 Timothy 1:17 Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

♦ Deuteronomy 4:15-16 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves; for ye saw no manner of similitude on the day that the LORD spake unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire: 16 Lest ye corrupt yourselves, and make you a graven image, the similitude of any figure, the likeness of male or female,

5. Who is immutable,

Mal 3:6 For I am the LORD, I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed.

immense,

♦ 1 Kings 8:27 But will God indeed dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?

♦ Jeremiah 23:23 Am I a God at hand, saith the LORD, and not a God afar off?

eternal,

♦ Psalm 90:2 Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God.

♦ incomprehensible, almighty,

♦ Genesis 17:1 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.

in every way infinite, most holy,

♦ Isaiah 6:3 And one cried unto another, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.

most wise, most free, most absolute; Who works all things according to the counsel of His own immutable and most righteous will,

♦ Psalm 115:3 But our God is in the heavens: he hath done whatsoever he hath pleased.

♦ Isaiah 46:10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure:

for His own glory;

♦ Proverbs 16:4 The LORD hath made all things for himself: yea, even the wicked for the day of evil.

6. Who is most loving, gracious, merciful, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; Who forgives iniquity, transgression, and sin; Who is the rewarder of those who diligently seek Him;

♦ Exodus 34:6-7 And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, 7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.

Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

and Who, at the same time, is most just and terrible in His judgments,

♦ Nehemiah 9:32-33 Now therefore, our God, the great, the mighty, and the terrible God, who keepest covenant and mercy, let not all the trouble seem little before thee, that hath come upon us, on our kings, on our princes, and on our priests, and on our prophets, and on our fathers, and on all thy people, since the time of the kings of Assyria unto this day. 33 Howbeit thou art just in all that is brought upon us; for thou hast done right, but we have done wickedly:

hating all sin

♦ Psalm 5:5-6 The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity. 6 Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the LORD will abhor the bloody and deceitful man.

and Who will by no means clear the guilty.

♦ Exodus 34:7 Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children’s children, unto the third and to the fourth generation.

♦ Nahum 1:2-3 God is jealous, and the LORD revengeth; the LORD revengeth, and is furious; the LORD will take vengeance on his adversaries, and he reserveth wrath for his enemies. 3 The LORD is slow to anger, and great in power, and will not at all acquit the wicked: the LORD hath his way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of his feet.

God, having all life,
♦ John 5:26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself; glory,

♦ Psalm 148:13 Let them praise the name of the LORD: for his name alone is excellent; his glory is above the earth and heaven.

goodness,

♦ Psalm 119:68 Thou art good, and doest good; teach me thy statutes.

blessedness, in and from Himself, is unique in being all- sufficient, both in Himself and to Himself, not standing in need of any creature which He has made, nor deriving any glory from such.

Job 22:2-3 Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable unto himself? 3 Is it any pleasure to the Almighty, that thou art righteous? or is it gain to him, that thou makest thy ways perfect?

On the contrary, it is God Who manifests His own glory in them, through them, to them and upon them. He is the only fountain of all being; from Whom, through Whom, and to Whom all things exist and move.

♦ Romans 11:34-36 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? 35 Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? 36 For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.

He has completely sovereign dominion over all creatures, to do through them, for them, or to them whatever He pleases.

♦ Daniel 4:25 That they shall drive thee from men, and thy dwelling shall be with the beasts of the field, and they shall make thee to eat grass as oxen, and they shall wet thee with the dew of heaven, and seven times shall pass over thee, till thou know that the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will.

♦ Daniel 4:34-35 And at the end of the days I Nebuchadnezzar lifted up mine eyes unto heaven, and mine understanding returned unto me, and I blessed the most High, and I praised and honoured him that liveth for ever, whose dominion is an everlasting dominion, and his kingdom is from generation to generation: 35 And all the inhabitants of the earth are reputed as nothing: and he doeth according to his will in the army of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth: and none can stay his hand, or say unto him, What doest thou?

In His sight all things are open and manifest;

♦ Hebrews 4:13 Neither is there any creature that is not manifest in his sight: but all things are naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we have to do.

His knowledge is infinite, infallible, and not dependant on the creature. Therefore, nothing is for Him contingent or uncertain.

♦ Ezekiel 11:5 And the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the LORD; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them.

♦ Acts 15:18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.

He is most holy in all His counsels, in all His works, and in all His commands.

♦ Psalm 145:17 The LORD is righteous in all his ways, and holy in all his works.

To Him is due from angels and men whatever worship, service, or obedience, they owe as creatures to the Creator, and whatever else He is pleased to require from them.

Revelation 5:12-14 Saying with a loud voice, Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. 13 And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for ever and ever. 14 And the four beasts said, Amen. And the four and twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth for ever and ever.

In this divine and infinite Being there are three subsistences, the Father, the Word or Son, and the Holy Spirit.
♦ 1 John 5:7 For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one.

♦ Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

♦ 2 Corinthians 13:14 The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen.

All are one in substance, power, and eternity; each having the whole divine essence, yet this essence being undivided.

♦ Exodus 3:14 And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

♦ John 14:11 Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me: or else believe me for the very works’ sake.

♦ 1 Corinthians 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

The Father was not derived from any other being; He was neither brought into being by, nor did He issue from any other being. The Son is eternally begotten of the Father.

♦ John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

♦ John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.

♦ John 15:26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:

♦ Galatians 4:6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

All three are infinite, without beginning, and are therefore only one God, Who is not to be divided in nature and being, but distinguished by several peculiar relative properties, and also their personal relations.

This doctrine of the Trinity is the foundation of our entire communion with God, and our comfortable dependence on Him.

Chapter 3

God’s Decree

1. God has decreed in Himself from all eternity, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely and unchangeably, all things which shall ever come to pass.

♦ Isaiah 46:10 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure:

♦ Ephesians 1:11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

♦ Hebrews 6:17 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath:

♦ Romans 9:15 For he saith to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion.

♦ Romans 9:18 Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

Yet in such a way that God is neither the author of sin nor does He have fellowship with any in the committing of sins,

♦ James 1:13 Let no man say when he is tempted, I am tempted of God: for God cannot be tempted with evil, neither tempteth he any man:

♦ 1 John 1:5 This then is the message which we have heard of him, and declare unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all.

nor is violence offered to the will of the creature, nor yet is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established.

♦ Acts 4:27-28 For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together, 28 For to do whatsoever thy hand and thy counsel determined before to be done.

In all this God’s wisdom is displayed, disposing all things, and also His power and faithfulness in accomplishing His decree.

♦ Numbers 23:19 God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good?

♦ Ephesians 1:3-5 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ: 4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: 5 Having redestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

2. Although God knows everything that may or can come to pass under all imaginable conditions,
♦ Acts 15:18 Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world.

yet He has not decreed anything because He foresaw it in the future, or because it would come to pass under certain conditions.

♦ Romans 9:11 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;)

♦ Romans 9:13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.

♦ Romans 9:16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

♦ Romans 9:18 Therefore hath he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will he hardeneth.

3. By the decree of God, for the manifestation of His glory, some men and angels are predestinated or foreordained to eternal life through Jesus Christ,
♦ 1 Timothy 5:21 I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things without preferring one before another, doing nothing by partiality.

♦ Matthew 25:34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world:

to the praise of His glorious grace.

♦ Ephesians 1:5-6 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will, 6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

Others are left to act in their sin to their just condemnation, to the praise of His glorious justice.

Romans 9:22-23 What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: 23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,

♦ Jude 1:4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained to this condemnation, ungodly men, turning the grace of our God into lasciviousness, and denying the only Lord God, and our Lord Jesus Christ.

4. Those angels and men thus predestinated and foreordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed, and the number of them is so certain and definite, that it cannot be either increased or diminished.
♦ 2 Timothy 2:19 Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

♦ John 13:18 I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.

5. Those of mankind who are predestinated to life, God chose before the foundation of the world was laid, in accordance with His eternal and immutable purpose and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will. God chose them in Christ for everlasting glory, solely out of His free grace and love,
♦ Ephesians 1:4 According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love:

♦ Ephesians 1:9 Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:

♦ Ephesians 1:11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

♦ 2 Timothy 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,

♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:19 Quench not the Spirit.

without any other thing in the creature as a condition or cause moving Him thereunto.

Romans 9:13 As it is written, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.

Romans 9:16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

♦ Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)

♦ Ephesians 2:12 That at that time ye were without Christ, being aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world:

6. As God has appointed the elect unto glory, so, by the eternal and completely free intention of His will, He has foreordained all the means.
♦ 1 Peter 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:13 But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:

Accordingly, those who are elected, being fallen in Adam are redeemed by Christ,

♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10 For God hath not appointed us to wrath, but to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 Who died for us, that, whether we wake or sleep, we should live together with him.

are effectually called to faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified,

♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:13But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth: and are kept by His power through faith unto salvation;

♦ 1 Peter 1:5 Who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.

neither are any but the elect redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved.

♦ John 10:26 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.

John 17:9 I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.

John 6:64 But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that believed not, and who should betray him.

7. The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be handled with special prudence and care, in order that men who are heeding the will of God revealed in His Word, and who are yielding obedience to it, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation be assured of their eternal election.
♦ 1 Thessalonians 1:4-5 Knowing, brethren beloved, your election of God. 5 For our gospel came not unto you in word only, but also in power, and in the Holy Ghost, and in much assurance; as ye know what manner of men we were among you for your sake.

♦ 2 Peter 1:10 Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall:

So shall this doctrine provide cause for praise,

♦ Ephesians 1:6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

♦ Romans 11:33 O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! reverence, admiration of God, and also provide cause for humility,

♦ Romans 11:5-6 Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace. 6 And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work.

♦ Romans 11:20 Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear:

diligence, and abundant consolation to all who sincerely obey the Gospel.

♦ Luke 10:20 Notwithstanding in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.

Chapter 4

Creation

1. In the beginning it pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,
♦ John 1:2-3 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.

Hebrews 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

Job 26:13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

for the manifestation of the glory of His eternal power,

♦ Romans 1:20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse:

wisdom, and goodness, to create or make the world and all things in it both visible and invisible, in the space of six days, and all very good.

♦ Colossians 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:

♦ Genesis 1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

2. After God had made all other creatures, He created man, male and female,
♦ Genesis 1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

with reasoning and immortal souls,

♦ Genesis 2:7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.

rendering them fit to live that life for Him for which they were created; being made in the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness;

♦ Eccles 7:29 Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.

♦ Genesis 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

having the law of God written in their hearts,

♦ Romans 2:14-15 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: 15 Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

and having the power to fulfill it; and yet living under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will which was subject to change.

Genesis 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

3. Besides the law written in their hearts, they received a command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
♦ Genesis 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

While they kept this command they were happy in their communion with God, and had dominion over all other creatures.

♦ Genesis 1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

♦ Genesis 1:28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

Chapter 5

Divine Providence

1. God the good Creator of all things, in His infinite power and wisdom, upholds, directs, disposes and governs all creatures and things,
♦ Hebrews 1:3 Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;

♦ Job 38:11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?

♦ Isaiah 46:10-11 Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure: 11 Calling a ravenous bird from the east, the man that executeth my counsel from a far country: yea, I have spoken it, I will also bring it to pass; I have purposed it, I will also do it.

♦ Psalm 135:6 Whatsoever the LORD pleased, that did he in heaven, and in earth, in the seas, and all deep places. from the greatest to the least,

♦ Matthew 10:29-31 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father. 30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows.

by His most wise and holy providence, to the end for which they were created. God governs according to His infallible foreknowledge and the free and unchanging counsel of His own will; for the praise of the glory of His wisdom, power, justice, boundless goodness, and mercy.

♦ Ephesians 1:11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

2. Although in relation to the foreknowledge and decree of God, Who is the First Cause, all things come to pass immutably and infallibly;
♦ Acts 2:23 Him, being delivered by the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and slain:

so that nothing happens to anyone by chance, or outside His providence,

♦ Proverbs 16:33 The lot is cast into the lap; but the whole disposing thereof is of the

LORD.

yet by His providence He orders events to occur according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.

♦ Genesis 8:22 While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease.

3. God, in His ordinary providence makes use of means,
♦ Acts 27:31 Paul said to the centurion and to the soldiers, Except these abide in the ship, ye cannot be saved.

♦ Acts 27:44 And the rest, some on boards, and some on broken pieces of the ship. And so it came to pass, that they escaped all safe to land.

♦ Isaiah 55:10 For as the rain cometh down, and the snow from heaven, and returneth not thither, but watereth the earth, and maketh it bring forth and bud, that it may give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater:

yet He is free to work outside,

♦ Hosea 1:7 But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the LORD their God, and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.

above,

♦ Romans 4:19-21 And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb:

and against them

♦ Daniel 3:27 And the princes, governors, and captains, and the king’s counsellors, being gathered together, saw these men, upon whose bodies the fire had no power, nor was an hair of their head singed, neither were their coats changed, nor the smell of fire had passed on them.

at His pleasure.

4. The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God so far manifest themselves in His providence, that His determinate counsel extends even to the first fall, and all other sinful actions of both angels and men.
♦ Romans 11:32-34 For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all. 33O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! 34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor?

♦ 2 Samuel 24:1 And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah.

♦ 2 Kings 19:28 Because thy rage against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.

This is not merely by a bare permission, but by a form of permission in which He included the most wise and powerful limitations, and other means of restricting and controlling sin.

♦ 2 Kings 19:28 Because thy rage against me and thy tumult is come up into mine ears, therefore I will put my hook in thy nose, and my bridle in thy lips, and I will turn thee back by the way by which thou camest.

♦ Psalm 76:10 Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee: the remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain.

These various limitations have been designed by God to bring about his most holy purposes.

♦ Genesis 50:20 But as for you, ye thought evil against me; but God meant it unto good, to bring to pass, as it is this day, to save much people alive.

♦ Isaiah 10:6-7 I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and against the people of my wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. 7 Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few.Isaiah 10:12 Wherefore it shall come to pass, that when the Lord hath performed his whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem, I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks.

Yet, in all these affairs, the sinfulness of both angels and men comes only from them and not from God, Who is altogether holy and righteous, and can never be the author or approver of sin.

♦ Psalm 50:21 These things hast thou done, and I kept silence; thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself: but I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thine eyes.

♦ 1 John 2:16 For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.

5. The most wise, righteous, and gracious God often leaves, for a time, His own children to various temptations, and to the corruptions of their own hearts, in order to chastise them for the sins which they have committed, or to show them the hidden strength of corruption and deceitfulness still in their hearts, so that they may be humbled and aroused to a more close and constant dependence upon Himself for their support, and that they may be made more watchful against future occasions of sin. Other just and holy objectives are also served by such action by God.
♦ 2 Chronicles 32:25-26 But Hezekiah rendered not again according to the benefit done unto him; for his heart was lifted up: therefore there was wrath upon him, and upon Judah and Jerusalem. 26 Notwithstanding Hezekiah humbled himself for the pride of his heart, both he and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that the wrath of the LORD came not upon them in the days of Hezekiah.

♦ 2 Chronicles 32:31 Howbeit in the business of the ambassadors of the princes of Babylon, who sent unto him to inquire of the wonder that was done in the land, God left him, to try him, that he might know all that was in his heart.

♦ 2 Chronicles 12:7-9 And when the LORD saw that they humbled themselves, the word of the LORD came to Shemaiah, saying, They have humbled themselves; therefore I will not destroy them, but I will grant them some deliverance; and my wrath shall not be poured out upon Jerusalem by the hand of Shishak. 8 Nevertheless they shall be his servants; that they may know my service, and the service of the kingdoms of the countries. 9 So Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, and took away the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king’s house; he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made.

Therefore whatever happens to any of His select is by His appointment, for His glory, and for their good.

♦ Romans 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.

6. As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God as a righteous judge, blinds and hardens for former sin,
♦ Romans 1:24-26, 28 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: 25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: 28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient;

♦ Romans 11:7-8 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded 8 (According as it is written, God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear;) unto this day.

from them He not only withholds His grace, by which they might have been enlightened in their understanding and affected in their hearts,

♦ Deut 29:4 Yet the LORD hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, unto this day.

but sometimes He also withdraws the gifts which they had

♦ Matthew 13:12 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.

and exposes them to certain objects which their corrupt state will make the occasion of sin.

♦ Deuteronomy 2:30 But Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass by him: for the LORD thy God hardened his spirit, and made his heart obstinate, that he might deliver him into thy hand, as appeareth this day.

♦ 2 Kings 8:12-13 And Hazael said, Why weepeth my lord? And he answered, Because I know the evil that thou wilt do unto the children of Israel: their strong holds wilt thou set on fire, and their young men wilt thou slay with the sword, and wilt dash their children, and rip up their women with child. 13 And Hazael said, But what, is thy servant a dog, that he should do this great thing? And Elisha answered, The LORD hath shewed me that thou shalt be king over Syria.

God gives them over to their own lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of Satan,

♦ Psalm 81:11-12 But my people would not hearken to my voice; and Israel would none of me. 12 So I gave them up unto their own hearts’ lust: and they walked in their own counsels.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 And with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved. 11

And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie:

12 That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness. so that eventually they harden themselves under the same influences which God uses for the softening of others.

♦ Exodus 8:15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was respite, he hardened his heart, and hearkened not unto them; as the LORD had said.

♦ Exodus 8:32 And Pharaoh hardened his heart at this time also, neither would he let the people go.

♦ Isaiah 6:9-10 And he said, Go, and tell this people, Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. 10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed.

♦ 1 Peter 2:7-8 Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, 8 And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed.

7. As the providence of God in general reaches to all creatures, so, in a more special manner, it takes care of His church, and governs all things to the good of His church.
♦ 1 Timothy 4:10 For therefore we both labour and suffer reproach, because we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, specially of those that believe.

♦ Amos 9:8-9 Behold, the eyes of the Lord GOD are upon the sinful kingdom, and I will destroy it from off the face of the earth; saving that I will not utterly destroy the house of Jacob, saith the LORD. 9 For, lo, I will command, and I will sift the house of Israel among all nations, like as corn is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least grain fall upon the earth.

♦ Isaiah 43:3-5 For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. 4 Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life. 5 Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west;

Chapter 6

The Fall of Man,

Sin and Punishment

1. Although God created man upright and perfect, and gave him a righteous law, which secured life for him while he kept it, and although God warned him that he would die if he broke it, yet man did not live long in this honour.
♦ Genesis 2:16-17 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to subdue Eve, seduced Adam by her, and he, without any compulsion, willfully transgressed the law of their creation and the command given to them by eating the forbidden fruit.

♦ Genesis 3:12-13 And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. 13 And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.

♦ 2 Corinthians 11:3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.

And this act God, according to His wise and holy counsel, was pleased to permit, having purposed to order it to His own glory.

2. Our first parents, by this sin, fell from their original righteousness and communion with God, and we in them. For from this, death came upon all: ♦ Romans 3:23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; all becoming dead in sin
♦ Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

and wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.

♦ Titus 1:15 Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.

♦ Genesis 6:5 And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually.

♦ Jeremiah 17:9 The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?

♦ Romans 3:10-19 As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: 11 There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. 12 They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. 13 Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: 14 Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: 15 Their feet are swift to shed blood: 16 Destruction and misery are in their ways: 17 And the way of peace have they not known: 18 There is no fear of God before their eyes. 19 Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it saith to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

3. They being the root, and by God’s appointment, standing in the room and stead of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and their corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation.
♦ Romans 5:12-19 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned: 13 (For until the law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come. 15 But not as the offence, so also is the free gift. For if through the offence of one many be dead, much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many. 16 And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift: for the judgment was by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification. 17 For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) 18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. 19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:21-22 For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. 22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:45 And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:49 And as we have borne the image of the earthy, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly.

Their descendants are therefore conceived in sin,

♦ Psalm 51:5 Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.

♦ Job 14:4 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? not one. and are by nature the children of wrath,

♦ Ephesians 2:3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others.

the servants of sin, and the subjects of death

♦ Romans 6:20 For when ye were the servants of sin, ye were free from righteousness.

Romans 5:12 Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:

and all other miseries, spiritual, temporal, and eternal, unless the Lord Jesus sets them free.

♦ Hebrews 2:14-15 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; 15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

♦ 1 Thessalonians 1:10 And to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead, even Jesus, which delivered us from the wrath to come.

4. All actual transgressions proceed from this original corruption,
♦ Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

♦ Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled

by which we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil.

♦ James 1:14-15 But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed. 15 Then when lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth sin: and sin, when it is finished, bringeth forth death.

♦ Matthew 15:19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies:

5. During this life the corruption of nature remains in those who are regenerated,
♦ Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.

♦ Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

♦ Eccles 7:20 For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.

♦ 1 John 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.

and although it is pardoned and mortified through Christ, yet this corrupt nature and all its motions are truly and properly sinful.

♦ Romans 7:23-25 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. 24

O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? 25 I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God; but with the flesh the law of sin.

♦ Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

Chapter 7

God’s Covenant

The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience to Him as their Creator, yet they could never have attained the reward of life except by some voluntary condescension on God’s part, and this He has been pleased to express in the form of a covenant.
♦ Luke 17:10 So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do.

♦ Job 35:7-8 If thou be righteous, what givest thou him? or what receiveth he of thine hand? 8 Thy wickedness may hurt a man as thou art; and thy righteousness may profit the son of man.

Moreover, as man had brought himself under the curse of the law by his fall, it pleased the Lord to make a covenant of grace.
♦ Genesis 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.

♦ Galatians 3:10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

♦ Romans 3:20-21 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin. 21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

In this covenant He freely offers to sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring from them faith in Him that they may be saved,

♦ Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

♦ Mark 16:15-16 And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. 16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.

John 3:16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

and promising to give to all who are appointed to eternal life His Holy Spirit to make them willing and able to believe.

♦ Ezekiel 36:26-27 A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. 27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

♦ John 6:44-45 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day. 45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

♦ Psalm 110:3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.

This covenant is revealed through the Gospel; first of all to Adam in the promise of salvation by the seed of the woman,
♦ Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

and afterwards by further steps until the full revelation of it became complete in the New Testament.

♦ Hebrews 1:1 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets,

The covenant of salvation rests upon an eternal covenant transaction between the Father and the Son about the redemption of the elect.

♦ 2 Timothy 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,

♦ Titus 1:2 In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began;

It is solely by the grace of this covenant that all the descendants of fallen Adam who have ever been saved have obtained life and blessed immortality, because man is now utterly incapable of gaining acceptance with God on the terms by which Adam stood in his state of innocency.

♦ Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

Hebrews 11:13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

♦ Romans 4:1-2 What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, hath found? 2 For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory; but not before God.

♦ Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

♦ John 8:56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.

Chapter 8

Christ the Mediator

It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, in accordance with the covenant made between them both, to be the Mediator between God and man;
♦ Isaiah 42:1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

♦ 1 Peter 1:19-20 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: 20 Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, to be Prophet,

♦ Acts 3:22 For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you.

Priest,

♦ Hebrews 5:5-6 So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee. 6 iAs he saith also in another place, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.

and King,

♦ Psalm 2:6 Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.

♦ Luke 1:33 And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.

the Head and Saviour of His Church,

Ephesians 1:22-23 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, 23 Which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all.

the Heir of all things,

♦ Hebrews 1:2 Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; and the Judge of all the world.

♦ Acts 17:31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.

To the Lord Jesus He gave, from all eternity, a people to be His seed. These, in time, would be redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified by the Lord Jesus.

♦ Isaiah 53:10 Yet it pleased the LORD to bruise him; he hath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the LORD shall prosper in his hand.

♦ John 17:6 I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy word.

♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

The Son of God, the second person in the Holy Trinity, being true and eternal God, the brightness of the Father’s glory, of the same substance and equal with Him; Who made the world, and Who upholds and governs all things which He has made, did, when the fullness of time had come, take upon Himself man’s nature, with all its essential properties and common infirmities,
♦ John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

♦ Galatians 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, with the exception of sin.

♦ Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

♦ Hebrews 2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil;

Hebrews 2:16-17 For verily he took not on him the nature of angels; but he took on him the seed of Abraham. 17 Wherefore in all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people.

♦ Romans 4:15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

He was conceived by the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit coming down upon her and the power of the Most High overshadowing her, so that He was born to a woman from the tribe of Judah, a descendant of Abraham and David, in accordance with the Scriptures.

♦ Matthew 1:22-23 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, 23 Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.

♦ Luke 1:27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin’s name was Mary.

♦ Luke 1:31 And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.

♦ Luke 1:35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.

Thus two whole, perfect and distinct natures were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion; So that the Lord Jesus Christ is truly God and truly man, yet He is one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.

♦ Romans 9:5 Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

♦ 1 Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

The Lord Jesus, His human nature thus united to the divine, once in the person of the Son, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure,
♦ Psalm 45:7 Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

♦ Acts 10:38 How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Ghost and with power: who went about doing good, and healing all that were oppressed of the devil; for God was with him.

John 3:34 For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.

having in Himself all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

♦ Colossians 2:3 In whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.

It pleased the Father that all fullness should dwell

♦ Colossians 1:19 For it pleased the Father that in him should all fullness dwell; in Him so that, being holy, harmless, undefiled,

♦ Hebrews 7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens; and full of grace and truth,

♦ John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a Mediator and Surety, ♦ Hebrews 7:22 By so much was Jesus made a surety of a better testament.

a position and duty which He did not take upon Himself, but was called to perform by His Father.

♦ Hebrews 5:5 So also Christ glorified not himself to be made an high priest; but he that said unto him, Thou art my Son, to day have I begotten thee.

And the Father also put all power and judgment in His hand, and gave Him commandment to exercise the same.

♦ John 5:22 For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:

♦ John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.

♦ Matthew 28:18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth.

♦ Acts 2:36 Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ.

This office and duty of Mediator and Surety the Lord Jesus undertook most willingly.
Psalm 40:7-8 Then said I, Lo, I come: in the volume of the book it is written of me, 8I delight to do thy will, O my God: yea, thy law is within my heart.

♦ Hebrews 10:5-10 Wherefore when he cometh into the world, he saith, Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not, but a body hast thou prepared me: 6 In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin thou hast had no pleasure. 7 Then said I, Lo, I come (in the volume of the book it is written of me,) to do thy will, O God. 8 Above when he said, Sacrifice and offering and burnt offerings and offering for sin thou wouldest not, neither hadst pleasure therein; which are offered by the law; 9 Then said he, Lo, I come to do thy will, O God. He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second. 10 By the which will we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.

♦ John 10:18 No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.

To discharge it, He was made under the law,

♦ Galatians 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law,

♦ Matthew 3:15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfill all righteousness. Then he suffered him.

♦ and perfectly fulfilled it, and He underwent the punishment due to us, which we should have borne and suffered.

♦ Galatians 3:13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:

♦ Isaiah 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.

♦ 1 Peter 3:18 For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit:

He was made sin and was made a curse for us;

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

enduring the most grievous sorrows in His Soul with the most painful sufferings in His body.

♦ Matthew 26:37-38 And he took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. 38 Then saith he unto them, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death: tarry ye here, and watch with me.

Luke 22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.

♦ Matthew 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?

He was crucified, and died, and remained in the state of the dead, but His body did not undergo any decomposition.

♦ Acts 13:37 But he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption.

On the third day He rose from the dead

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:3-4 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures:

with the same body in which He had suffered,

♦ John 20:25 The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.

♦ John 20:27 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.

with which He also ascended into Heaven,

♦ Mark 16:19 So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God.

♦ Acts 1:9-11 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. 10 And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; 11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

and there sits at the right hand of His Father making intercession,

♦ Romans 8:34 Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.

♦ Hebrews 9:24 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us:

and shall return to judge men and angels at the end of the world.

♦ Acts 10:42 And he commanded us to preach unto the people, and to testify that it is he which was ordained of God to be the Judge of quick and dead.

♦ Romans 14:9-10 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living. 10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

♦ Acts 1:11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

♦ 2 Peter 2:4 For if God spared not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to hell, and delivered them into chains of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment;

The Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of Himself which He, through the eternal Spirit, once offered up to God, has fully satisfied the justice of God,
♦ Hebrews 9:14 How much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?

♦ Hebrews 10:14 For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

♦ Romans 3:25-26 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God; 26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

has procured reconciliation, and has purchased an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of Heaven for all those whom the Father has given to Him.

♦ John 17:2 As thou hast given him power over all flesh, that he should give eternal life to as many as thou hast given him.

♦ Hebrews 9:15 And for this cause he is the mediator of the new testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first testament, they which are called might receive the promise of eternal inheritance.

6 Although the price of redemption was not actually paid by Christ until after His incarnation yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefit arising from His payment were communicated to the elect in all ages from the beginning of the world through those promises, types, and sacrifices in which He was revealed and signified as the seed which should bruise the serpent’s head,

1 Corinthians 4:10 We are fools for Christ’s sake, but ye are wise in Christ; we are weak, but ye are strong; ye are honourable, but we are despised.

♦ Hebrews 4:2 For unto us was the gospel preached, as well as unto them: but the word preached did not profit them, not being mixed with faith in them that heard it.

♦ 1 Peter 1:10 Of which salvation the prophets have inquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: and also the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world,

♦ Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

for He is the same yesterday, and today, and forever.

♦ Hebrews 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and forever.

Christ, in His work of Mediator, acts according to both natures, each nature doing that which is proper to itself. Yet, because of the unity of His person, that which is proper to one nature is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.
♦ John 3:13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.

♦ Acts 20:28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.

To all those for whom Christ has obtained eternal redemption, He certainly and effectually applies and communicates this redemption, making intercession for them,
♦ John 6:37 All that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to me I will in no wise cast out.

♦ John 10:15-16 As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep. 16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

♦ John 17:9 I pray for them: I pray not for the world, but for them which thou hast given me; for they are thine.

♦ Romans 5:10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

uniting them to Himself by His Spirit, revealing to them in the Word and by the

Word the mystery of salvation. He persuades them to believe and obey,

♦ John 17:6 I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the world: thine they were, and thou gavest them me; and they have kept thy word.

♦ Ephesians 1:9Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself:

♦ 1 John 5:20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding, that we may know him that is true, and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life.

governing their hearts by His Word and Spirit,

♦ Romans 8:9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. ♦ Romans 8:14 For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. and overcome all their enemies by His almighty power and wisdom.

♦ Psalm 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.

This is achieved in such a manner and by such ways as are most consonant to His wonderful and unsearchable dispensation, and it is all by free and absolute grace, without any condition foreseen in them to procure it.

♦ John 3:8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

♦ Ephesians 1:8 Wherein he hath abounded toward us in all wisdom and prudence;

This office of Mediator between God and man is proper only to Christ, Who is the Prophet, Priest, and King of the Church. Free Will of God, and this office may not be transferred from Him to any other, either in whole or in part.
♦ 1 Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

This number and order of offices is essential. Because of our ignorance we need His prophetic office.
John 1:18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

Because of our alienation from God and the imperfection of the best of our service, we need His priestly office to reconcile us and present us to God as acceptable.

♦ Colossians 1:21 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled

♦ Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

Because of our aversion to, and utter inability to return to God, and for our rescue and keeping from spiritual enemies, we need His kingly office to convince, subdue, draw, uphold, deliver, and preserve us until we reach His heavenly kingdom.

♦ John 16:8 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

♦ Psalm 110:3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.

♦ Luke 1:74-75 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, 75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.

Chapter 9

Free Will

God has indued the will of man, by nature, with liberty and the power to choose and to act upon his choice. This free will is neither forced, nor destined by any necessity of nature to do good or evil.
♦ Matthew 17:12 But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.

♦ James 1:14 But every man is tempted, when he is drawn away of his own lust, and enticed.

♦ Deuteronomy 30:19 I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose life, that both thou and thy seed may live:

Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that which was good and well-pleasing to God,
Eccles 7:29 Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.

but he was mutable [unstable and changeable], so that he might fall from this condition.

♦ Genesis 3:6 And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat, and gave also unto her husband with her; and he did eat.

Man, by his fall into a state of sin, has completely lost all ability of will to perform any of the spiritual good which accompanies salvation.
♦ Romans 5:6 For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly.

♦ Romans 8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

As a natural man, he is altogether averse to spiritual good, and dead in sin.

♦ Ephesians 2:1 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;

♦ Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)

He is not able by his own strength to convert himself, or to prepare himself for conversion.

♦ Titus 3:3-5 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. 4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

♦ John 6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.

When God converts a sinner, and translates him into a state of grace, He frees him from his natural bondage to sin,
♦ Colossians 1:13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:

♦ John 8:36 If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.

and by grace alone He enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good.

Philippians 2:13 For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.

But because of his remaining corruptions he does not only (or perfectly) will that which is good, but also wills that which is evil.

♦ Romans 7:15 For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.

♦ Romans 7:18-19 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not. 19 For the good that I would I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do.

♦ Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

The will of man will only be made perfectly and immutably free to will good alone in the state of glory.
♦ Ephesians 4:13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ:

Chapter 10

Effectual Calling

Those whom God has predestinated to life, He is pleased in His appointed and accepted time to effectually call
♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

♦ Romans 11:7 What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded

♦ Ephesians 1:10-11 That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him: 11 In whom also we have obtained an inheritance, being predestinated according to the purpose of him who worketh all things after the counsel of his own will:

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14 But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth: 14 Whereunto he called you by our gospel, to the obtaining of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.

by His Word and Spirit, out of that state of sin and death which they are in by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ.

Ephesians 2:1-6 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins; 2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience: 3 Among whom also we all had our conversation in times past in the lusts of our flesh, fulfilling the desires of the flesh and of the mind; and were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. 4 But God, who is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved us, 5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;) 6 And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:

He enlightens their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God.

♦ Acts 26:18 To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.

♦ Ephesians 1:17-18 That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation in the knowledge of him: 18 The eyes of your understanding being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints,

He takes away their heart of stone and gives to them a heart of flesh.

♦ Ezekiel 36:26 A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh.

He renews their wills, and by His almighty power, causes them to desire and pursue that which is good. He effectually draws them to Jesus Christ,

♦ Deuteronomy 30:6 And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.

♦ Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

♦ Ephesians 1:19 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, yet in such a way that they come absolutely freely, being made willing by His grace.

♦ Psalm 110:3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.

♦ Song 1:4 Draw me, we will run after thee: the king hath brought me into his chambers: we will be glad and rejoice in thee, we will remember thy love more than wine: the upright love thee.

This effectual call is of God’s free and special grace alone, not on account of anything at all foreseen in man.
♦ 2 Timothy 1:9 Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,

♦ Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

It is not made because of any power or agency in the creature who is wholly passive in the matter. Man is dead in sins and trespasses until quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit.

♦ 1 Corinthians 2:14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

♦ Ephesians 2:5 Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ, (by grace ye are saved;)

♦ John 5:25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.

By this he is enabled to answer the call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed by it. This enabling power is no less power than that which raised up Christ from the dead.

Infants dying in infancy are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit,
♦ John 3:3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

♦ John 3:5-6 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Who works when, where, and how He pleases.

♦ John 3:8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

So also are all elect persons who are incapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.

Others are not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word, and may experience some common operations of the Spirit,
♦ Matthew 22:14 For many are called, but few are chosen.

♦ Matthew 13:20-21 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it; 21 Yet hath he not root in himself,

but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.

♦ Hebrews 6:4-5 For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, 5 And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come,

yet because they are not effectually drawn by the Father, they will not and cannot truly come to Christ and therefore cannot be saved.

♦ John 6:44-45 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day. 45 It is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.

♦ John 6:65 And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father.

♦ 1 John 2:24-25 Let that therefore abide in you, which ye have heard from the beginning. If that which ye have heard from the beginning shall remain in you, ye also shall continue in the Son, and in the Father. 25 And this is the promise that he hath promised us, even eternal life.

Much less can men who do not embrace the Christian religion be saved, however diligent they may be to frame their lives according to the light of nature and the requirements of the religion they profess.

♦ Acts 4:12 Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

♦ John 4:22 Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.

♦ John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.

Chapter 11

Justification

Those whom God effectually calls He also freely justifies,
♦ Romans 3:24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:

♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by accounting and accepting them as righteous,

♦ Romans 4:5-8 But to him that worketh not, but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness. 6 Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works, 7 Saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. 8 Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.

♦ Ephesians 1:7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace; not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone.

♦ 1 Corinthians 1:30-31 But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption: 31 That, according as it is written, He that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord.

♦ Romans 5:17-19 For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.) 18 Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. 19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.

They are not justified because God reckons as their righteousness either their faith, their believing, or any other act of evangelical obedience. They are justified wholly and solely because God imputes to them Christ’s righteousness. He imputes to them Christ’s active obedience to the whole law and His passive obedience in death.

♦ Philippians 3:8-9 Yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord: for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung, that I may win Christ, 9 And be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith:

♦ Ephesians 2:8-10 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: 9 Not of works, lest any man should boast. 10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

They receive Christ’s righteousness by faith, and rest on Him. They do not possess or produce this faith themselves, it is the gift of God.

♦ John 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

♦ Romans 5:17 For if by one man’s offence death reigned by one; much more they which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness shall reign in life by one, Jesus Christ.)

2 Faith, which receives Christ’s righteousness and depends on Him is the sole instrument of justification,

Romans 3:28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law.

yet this faith is not alone in the person justified, but is always accompanied by all the other saving graces. And it is not a dead faith, but works by love.

♦ Galatians 5:6 For in Jesus Christ neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision; but faith which worketh by love.

♦ James 2:17 Even so faith, if it hath not works, is dead, being alone.

♦ James 2:22 Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect?

♦ James 2:26 For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also.

Christ, by His obedience and death, fully discharged the debt of all those who are justified, and by the sacrifice of himself through the blood of His cross, underwent instead of them the penalty due to them, so making a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God’s justice on their behalf.
♦ Hebrews 10:14 For by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified.

♦ 1 Peter 1:18-19 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; 19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:

♦ Isaiah 53:5-6 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. 6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.

Yet because He was given by the Father for them, and because His obedience and satisfaction was accepted instead of theirs (and both freely, not because of anything in them),
♦ Romans 8:32 He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:21 For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him.

therefore they are justified entirely and solely by free grace, so that both the exact justice and the rich grace of God might be glorified in the justification of sinners.

♦ Romans 3:26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

♦ Ephesians 1:6-7 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. 7 In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace;

♦ Ephesians 2:7 That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.

From all eternity God decreed to justify all the elect,
♦ Galatians 3:8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, preached before the gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed.

♦ 1 Peter 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

♦ 1 Timothy 2:6 Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.

and Christ, in the fullness of time, died for their sins, and rose again for their justification.

♦ Romans 4:25 Who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification.

Nevertheless, they are not personally justified until the Holy Spirit, in due time, actually applies Christ to them.

♦ Colossians 1:21-22 And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled 22 In the body of his flesh through death, to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in his sight:

♦ Titus 3:4-7 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; 6 Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour; 7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.

God continues to forgive the sins of those who are justified,
♦ Matthew 6:12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.

♦ 1 John 1:7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.

♦ 1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

and although they can never fall from the state of justification,

♦ John 10:28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.

yet they may because of their sins, fall under God’s fatherly displeasure.

♦ Psalm 89:31-33 If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments; 32 Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes. 33 Nevertheless my lovingkindness will I not utterly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail.

In that condition they will not usually have the light of God’s countenance restored to them until they humble themselves, confess their sins, ask for pardon, and renew their faith and repentance.

♦ Psalm 32:5 I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the LORD; and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin. Selah.
♦ Psalm 51:1-19 Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness:

according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions. 2 Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. 3 For I acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin is ever before me. 4 Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest. 5 Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me. 6 Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts: and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom. 7 Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow. 8 Make me to hear joy and gladness; that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice. 9 Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities. 10 Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me. 11 Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy Holy Spirit from me. 12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit. 13Then will I teach transgressors thy ways; and sinners shall be converted unto thee. 14 Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation: and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness. 15 O Lord, open thou my lips; and my mouth shall shew forth thy praise. 16 For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it: thou delightest not in burnt offering. 17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise. 18 Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem. 19 Then shalt thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness, with burnt offering and whole burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar.
♦ Matthew 26:75 And Peter remembered the word of Jesus, which said unto him, Before the
cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. And he went out, and wept bitterly.

The justification of believers during the Old Testament period was in all these respects exactly the same as the justification of New Testament believers.
♦ Galatians 3:9 So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham.

♦ Romans 2:22-24 Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? thou that abhorrest idols, dost thou commit sacrilege? 23 Thou that makest thy boast of the law, through breaking the law dishonourest thou God? 24 For the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is written.

Chapter 12

Adoption

God has vouchsafed [promised, guaranteed], that in Christ, His only Son, and for His sake, all those who are justified shall be made partakers of the grace of adoption,
♦ Ephesians 1:5 Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,

♦ Galatians 4:4-5 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, 5 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

by which they are taken into the number of the children of God and enjoy their liberties and privileges.

♦ John 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

♦ Romans 8:17 And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.

They have His name put upon them,

♦ 2 Corinthians 6:18 And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.

♦ Revelation 3:12 Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name.

and receive the Spirit of adoption.

♦ Romans 8:15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

They have access to the throne of grace with boldness, and are enabled to cry, ‘Abba, Father!’

♦ Galatians 4:6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

♦ Ephesians 2:18 For through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.

They are pitied,

♦ Psalm 103:13 Like as a father pitieth his children, so the LORD pitieth them that fear him.

protected,

♦ Proverbs 14:26 In the fear of the LORD is strong confidence: and his children shall have a place of refuge.

provided for,

♦ 1 Peter 5:7 Casting all your care upon him; for he careth for you. and chastened by Him as by a Father,

♦ Hebrews 12:6 For whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth.

yet they are never cast off,

♦ Isaiah 54:8-9 In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment; but with everlasting kindness will I have mercy on thee, saith the LORD thy Redeemer. 9 For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.

♦ Lam 3:31 For the Lord will not cast off for ever:

but are sealed to the day of redemption,

♦ Ephesians 4:30 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

when they inherit the promises as heirs of everlasting salvation.

♦ Hebrews 1:4 Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they.

♦ Hebrews 6:12 That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

Chapter 13

Sanctification

Those who are united to Christ, effectually called, and regenerated, having had a new heart and a new spirit created in them through the virtue of Christ’s death and resurrection, are then further sanctified in a very real and personal way.
♦ Acts 20:32 And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

♦ Romans 6:5-6 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: 6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

Because of the virtue of Christ’s death and resurrection. and by His Word and Spirit dwelling in them,

♦ John 17:17 Sanctify them through thy truth: thy word is truth.

♦ Ephesians 3:16-19 That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man; 17 That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye, being rooted and grounded in love, 18 May be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; 19And to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge, that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.

♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:21-23 Prove all things; hold fast that which is good. 22 Abstain from all appearance of evil. 23 And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed.

♦ Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

The different lusts of the body of sin are increasingly weakened and mortified,

♦ Galatians 5:24 And they that are Christ’s have crucified the flesh with the affections and lusts.

and Christ’s people are increasingly quickened and strengthened in all saving graces,

♦ Colossians 1:11 Strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and long-suffering with joyfulness; to practice all true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.

♦ 2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

♦ Hebrews 12:14 Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:

This sanctification extends throughout the whole person,
♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:23 And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.

yet it remains imperfect in this life. Some remnants of corruption live on in every part,

♦ Romans 7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.

♦ Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

and from this arises a continuous war between irreconcilable parties – the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.

♦ Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

♦ 1 Peter 2:11 Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts, which war against the soul;

In this war, although the remaining corruption for a time may greatly prevail,
♦ Romans 7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

yet through the continual supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regenerate part overcomes.

♦ Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

And so the saints grow in grace perfecting holiness in the fear of God; pressing after a heavenly life in evangelical obedience to all the commands which Christ as Head and King, in His Word, has prescribed to them.

Ephesians 4:15-16 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ: 16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.

♦ 2 Corinthians 3:8 How shall not the ministration of the spirit be rather glorious?

♦ 2 Corinthians 7:1 Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse ourselves from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.

Chapter 14

Saving Faith

The grace of faith by which the elect are enabled to believe, so that their souls are saved, is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts,
♦ 2 Corinthians 4:13 We having the same spirit of faith, according as it is written, I believed, and therefore have I spoken; we also believe, and therefore speak;

♦ Ephesians 2:8 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

and is ordinarily brought into being by the ministry of the Word.

♦ Romans 10:14 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher?

♦ Romans 10:17 So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

It is also increased and strengthened by the work of the Spirit through the ministry of the Word, and also by the administration of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, prayer, and other means appointed by God.

♦ Luke 17:5 And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith.

♦ 1 Peter 2:2 As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:

♦ Acts 20:32 And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

By this faith a Christian believes to be true whatever is revealed in the Word because this Word has the authority of God Himself.
Acts 24:14 But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets:

♦ Also, by this saving faith, a Christian apprehends an excellency in the Word which is higher than in all other writings and everything else in the world,

♦ Psalm 19:7-10 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple. 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes. 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether. 10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

♦ Psalm 119:72 The law of thy mouth is better unto me than thousands of gold and silver.

because the Word shows forth the glory of God, revealing His attributes, showing the excellency of Christ’s nature and offices, and also the power and fullness of the Holy Spirit in His workings and operations. – So the Christian is enabled to cast his soul upon the Truth he has believed,

♦ 2 Timothy 1:12 For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.

and to see and respond to the different kinds of teaching which different passages of Scripture contain. Saving faith equips him to perceive and obey the commands,

♦ John 15:14 Ye are my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you. hear the threatenings with fear and respect,

♦ Isaiah 66:2 For all those things hath mine hand made, and all those things have been, saith the LORD: but to this man will I look, even to him that is poor and of a contrite spirit, and trembleth at my word.

and to embrace the promises of God for this life and the life to come.

♦ Hebrews 11:13 These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

But the first and most important acts of saving faith are those directly to do with Christ, when the soul accepts, receives, and rests upon Him alone for justification, sanctification and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.

♦ John 1:12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:

Acts 16:31 And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house.

♦ Galatians 2:20 I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me.

♦ Acts 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

This faith, although it differs in degree, and may be weak or strong,
♦ Hebrews 5:13-14 For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. 14 But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.

♦ Matthew 6:30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?

♦ Romans 4:19-20 And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb: 20 He staggered not at the promise of God through unbelief; but was strong in faith, giving glory to God;

even at its very weakest is in an entirely different class and has a different nature (like other aspects of saving grace) from the kind of faith and common grace which is possessed by temporary believers.

♦ 2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ, to them that have obtained like precious faith with us through the righteousness of God and our Saviour Jesus Christ:

Therefore, though it may be frequently assailed and weakened, it gets the victory,

♦ Ephesians 6:16 Above all, taking the shield of faith, wherewith ye shall be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked.

♦ 1 John 5:4-5 For whatsoever is born of God overcometh the world: and this is the victory that overcometh the world, even our faith. 5 Who is he that overcometh the world, but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God?

growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ,

♦ Hebrews 6:11-12 And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end: 12 That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

Colossians 2:2 That their hearts might be comforted, being knit together in love, and unto all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the acknowledgment of the mystery of God, and of the Father, and of Christ;

Who is both the author and finisher of our faith.

♦ Hebrews 12:2 Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.

Chapter 15

Repentance and Salvation

Those of the elect who are converted in riper years, having lived some time in the state of nature, and in this state served various lusts and pleasures, God gives repentance which leads to life, through an effectual call.
♦ Titus 3:2-5 To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men. 3 For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another. 4 But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, 5 Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;

Because there is not one person who does good and commits no sin,
♦ Eccles 7:20 For there is not a just man upon earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not.

and because the best of men may fall into great sins and provocations through the power and deceitfulness of their own indwelling corruption and the prevalency of temptation, God has mercifully provided in the covenant of grace that when believers sin and fall they shall be renewed through repentance to salvation.

♦ Luke 22:31-32 And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: 32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.

Saving repentance is an evangelical grace
♦ Zechariah 12:10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.

♦ Acts 11:18 When they heard these things, they held their peace, and glorified God, saying, Then hath God also to the Gentiles granted repentance unto life.

by which a person who is made to feel, by the Holy Spirit, the manifold evils of his sin, and being given faith in Christ, humbles himself over his sin with godly sorrow, detestation of his sin and self-abhorrency.

♦ Ezek 36:21 But I had pity for mine holy name, which the house of Israel had profaned among the heathen, whither they went.

♦ 2 Corinthians 7:11 For behold this selfsame thing, that ye sorrowed after a godly sort, what carefulness it wrought in you, yea, what clearing of yourselves, yea, what indignation, yea, what fear, yea, what vehement desire, yea, what zeal, yea, what revenge! In all things ye have approved yourselves to be clear in this matter.

In such repentance the person also prays for pardon and strength of grace, and has a purpose and endeavor, by supplies of the Spirit’s power, to walk before God and to totally please Him in all things.

♦ Psalm 119:6 Then shall I not be ashamed, when I have respect unto all thy commandments.

♦ Psalm 119:128 Therefore I esteem all thy precepts concerning all things to be right; and I hate every false way.

As repentance is to be continued through the whole course of our lives, onaccount of the body of death, and the motions of it, it is therefore every man’s duty to repent of his particular known sins particularly.
♦ Luke 19:8 And Zacchaeus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold.

♦ 1 Timothy 3:13 For they that have used the office of a deacon well purchase to themselves a good degree, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus.

♦ 1 Timothy 3:15 But if I tarry long, that thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the house of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth.

Such is the provision which God has made through Christ in the covenant of grace for the preservation of believers in the way of salvation, that although even the smallest sin deserves damnation,
♦ Romans 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

yet there is no sin great enough to bring damnation on those who repent.

♦ Isaiah 1:16-18 Wash you, make you clean; put away the evil of your doings from before mine eyes; cease to do evil; 17 Learn to do well; seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow. 18 Come now, and let us reason together, saith the LORD: though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool.

♦ Isaiah 55:7 Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unrighteous man his thoughts: and let him return unto the LORD, and he will have mercy upon him; and to our God, for he will abundantly pardon.

This makes the constant preaching of repentance necessary.

Chapter 16

Good Works

Good works are only those works which God has commanded in His Holy Word.
♦ Micah 6:8 He hath shewed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth the LORD require of thee, but to do justly, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with thy God?

♦ Hebrews 13:21 Make you perfect in every good work to do his will, working in you that which is wellpleasing in his sight, through Jesus Christ; to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Works, which do not have the warrant of Scripture, and are devised by men out of blind zeal, or upon any pretence of good intentions are not good works.

♦ Matthew 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

♦ Isaiah 29:13 Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men:

Good works, performed in obedience to God’s commandments, are these: the fruits and evidences of a true and living faith.
♦ James 2:18 Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works.

♦ James 2:22 Seest thou how faith wrought with his works, and by works was faith made perfect?

♦ By these believers express and show their thankfulness,

♦ Psalm 116:12-13 What shall I render unto the LORD for all his benefits toward me? 13 I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the LORD.

strengthen their assurance,

♦ 1 John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.

1 John 2:5 But whoso keepeth his word, in him verily is the love of God perfected: hereby know we that we are in him.

♦ 2 Peter 1:5-11 And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge; 6 And to knowledge temperance; and to temperance patience; and to patience godliness; 7 And to godliness brotherly kindness; and to brotherly kindness charity. 8 For if these things be in you, and abound, they make you that ye shall neither be barren nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 But he that lacketh these things is blind, and cannot see afar off, and hath forgotten that he was purged from his old sins. 10 Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall: 11 For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. edify their brethren, adorn the profession of the Gospel,

♦ Matthew 5:16 Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.

stop the mouths of the adversaries, and glorify God,

♦ 1 Timothy 6:1 Let as many servants as are under the yoke count their own masters worthy of all honour, that the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.

♦ 1 Peter 2:15 For so is the will of God, that with well doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men:

♦ Philippians 1:11 Being filled with the fruits of righteousness, which are by Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God.

Whose workmanship they are; created in Christ Jesus to perform good works,

♦ Ephesians 2:10 For we are his workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them.

and to have fruits of holiness which lead to eternal life.

♦ Romans 6:22 But now being made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness, and the end everlasting life.

Their ability to do these good works does not in any way come from themselves, but comes wholly from the Spirit of Christ.
♦ John 15:4-5 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. 5 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.

To enable them to do good works, alongside the graces which they have already received, it is necessary for there to be a further real influence of the same Holy Spirit to cause them to will and to do of His good pleasure.

♦ 2 Corinthians 3:5 Not that we are sufficient of ourselves to think any thing as of ourselves; but our sufficiency is of God;

♦ Philippians 2:13 For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure.

But believers are not, on these grounds, to grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty unless given a special motion by the Spirit, but they must be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them.

♦ Philippians 2:12 Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.

♦ Hebrews 6:11-12 And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end: 12 That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

♦ Isaiah 64:7 And there is none that calleth upon thy name, that stirreth up himself to take hold of thee: for thou hast hid thy face from us, and hast consumed us, because of our iniquities.

Those who attain the greatest height which is possible in this life in their obedience to God, are still so far from being able to supererogate, and to do more than God requires, that they fall short of much which they are bound to do in their duty to God.
♦ Job 9:2-3 I know it is so of a truth: but how should man be just with God? 3 If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand.

♦ Galatians 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and these are contrary the one to the other: so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.

♦ Luke 17:10 So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do.

We cannot by our best works merit pardon of sin or eternal life from the hand of God because of the great disproportion between our best works and the glory to come, and because of the infinite distance which is between us and God. With our works we cannot profit or satisfy God concerning the debt we owe on account of our sins.
♦ Romans 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

Ephesians 2:8-9 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: 9 Not of works, lest any man should boast.

♦ Romans 4:6 Even as David also describeth the blessedness of the man, unto whom God imputeth righteousness without works,

When we have done all we can, we have only done our duty, and are still unprofitable servants. And in any case, in so far as our works are good they originate from the work of the Holy Spirit.

♦ Galatians 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 23 Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.

Even then, the good works are so defiled by us, and so mixed with weakness and imperfection, that they could not survive the severity of God’s judgment.

♦ Isaiah 64:6 But we are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses are as filthy rags; and we all do fade as a leaf; and our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away.

♦ Psalm 143:2 And enter not into judgment with thy servant: for in thy sight shall no man living be justified.

Yet, quite apart from the fact that believers are accepted through Christ as individual souls, their good works are also accepted through Christ.
♦ Ephesians 1:6 To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

♦ 1 Peter 2:5 Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ.

It is not as though the believers are (in this life) wholly unblameable and unreprovable in God’s sight, but because He looks upon them in His Son, and is pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, although it is accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections.

♦ Matthew 25:21 His lord said unto him, Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

♦ Matthew 25:23 His lord said unto him, Well done, good and faithful servant; thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.

♦ Hebrews 6:10 For God is not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward his name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and do minister.

Works performed by unregenerate men, although they may in essence be things which God commands, and they may be good and beneficial both to themselves and others,
♦ 2 Kings 10:30 And the LORD said unto Jehu, Because thou hast done well in executing that which is right in mine eyes, and hast done unto the house of Ahab according to all that was in mine heart, thy children of the fourth generation shall sit on the throne of Israel.

♦ 1 Kings 21:27 And it came to pass, when Ahab heard those words, that he rent his clothes, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went softly.

♦ 1 Kings 21:29 Seest thou how Ahab humbleth himself before me? because he humbleth himself before me, I will not bring the evil in his days: but in his son’s days will I bring the evil upon his house.

yet because they do not proceed from a heart purified by faith,

♦ Genesis 4:5 But unto Cain and to his offering he had not respect. And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell.

♦ Hebrews 11:4 By faith Abel offered unto God a more excellent sacrifice than Cain, by which he obtained witness that he was righteous, God testifying of his gifts: and by it he being dead yet speaketh.

♦ Hebrews 11:6 But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him.

and are not done in a right manner according to the Word,

♦ 1 Corinthians 13:1 Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

and because it is not their underlying purpose to bring glory to God,

♦ Matthew 6:2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

♦ Matthew 6:5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are: for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.

therefore they are sinful, and cannot please God, nor can they make a man fit to receive grace from God.

Amos 5:21-22 I hate, I despise your feast days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies. 22 Though ye offer me burnt offerings and your meat offerings, I will not accept them: neither will I regard the peace offerings of your fat beasts.

♦ Romans 9:16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

And yet, for unregenerate men to neglect such works is even more sinful and displeasing to God.

♦ Job 21:14-15 Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. 15 What is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him?

♦ Matthew 25:41-43 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: 42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: 43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not.

Chapter 17

The Perseverance of the Saints

Those whom God has accepted in the beloved, and has effectually called and sanctified by His Spirit, and given the precious faith of His elect, can neither totally nor finally fall from the state of grace, but they will certainly persevere in that state to the end and be eternally saved. This is because the gifts and calling of God are without repentance, and therefore He continues to beget and nourish in them faith, repentance, love, joy, hope, and all the graces of the spirit which lead to immortality.
♦ John 10:28-29 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand. 29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and no man is able to pluck them out of my Father’s hand.

♦ Philippians 1:6 Being confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ:

♦ 2 Timothy 2:19 Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his. And, Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.

♦ 1 John 2:19 They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would no doubt have continued with us: but they went out, that they might be made manifest that they were not all of us.

And though many storms and floods arise and beat against the saints, yet these things shall never be able to sweep them off the foundation and rock which they are fastened upon by faith. Even though, through unbelief and the temptations of Satan, the sight and feeling of the light and love of God may for a time be clouded and obscured from them,

♦ Psalm 89:31-32 If they break my statutes, and keep not my commandments; 32 Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, and their iniquity with stripes.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:32 But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world.

yet God is still the same, and they are sure to be kept by His power until their salvation is complete, when they shall enjoy the purchased possession which is theirs, for they are engraved upon the palm of His hands, and their names have been written in His Book of Life from all eternity.

♦ Mal 3:6 For I am the LORD, I change not; therefore ye sons of Jacob are not consumed.

This perseverance of the saints does not depend on them – that is, on their own free will. It rests upon the immutability of the decree of election,
♦ Romans 8:30 Moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.

♦ Romans 9:11, 16 (For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth;) 16 So then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.

which flows from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father. It also rests upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ, and upon the union which true saints have with Him.

♦ Romans 5:9-10 Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. 10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life.

♦ John 14:19 Yet a little while, and the world seeth me no more; but ye see me: because I live, ye shall live also.

It rests upon the oath of God,

♦ Hebrews 6:17-18 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: 18 That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:

and upon the abiding of His Spirit.

♦ 1 John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

It depends upon the seed of God being within them and upon the very nature of the covenant of grace.

♦ Jeremiah 32:40 And I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good; but I will put my fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me.

All these factors give rise to the certainty and infallibility of the security and perseverance of the saints.

The saints may, through the temptation of Satan and the world, and because their remaining sinful tendencies prevail over them, and through their neglect of the means which God has provided to keep them, fall into grievous sins. They may continue in this state for some time,
♦ Matthew 26:70 But he denied before them all, saying, I know not what thou sayest. 72 And again he denied with an oath, I do not know the man. 74 Then began he to curse and to swear, saying, I know not the man. And immediately the cock crew. so that they incur God’s displeasure, grieve His Holy Spirit,

♦ Isaiah 64:5, 9 Thou meetest him that rejoiceth and worketh righteousness, those that remember thee in thy ways: behold, thou art wroth; for we have sinned: in those is continuance, and we shall be saved. 9 Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy people. 9 Be not wroth very sore, O LORD, neither remember iniquity for ever: behold, see, we beseech thee, we are all thy people.

♦ Ephesians 4:30 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.

suffer the impairment of their graces and comforts,

♦ Psalm 51:10, 12 Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me. 12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit. have their hearts hardened and their conscience wounded,

♦ Psalm 32:3-4 When I kept silence, my bones waxed old through my roaring all the day long. 4 For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me: my moisture is turned into the drought of summer. Selah.

and hurt and scandalize others. By this they will bring temporal judgments upon themselves.

♦ 2 Samuel 12:14 Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.

Yet they shall renew their repentance and be preserved, through faith in Christ Jesus, to the end.

♦ Luke 22:32, 61, 62 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. 61 And the Lord turned, and looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said unto him, Before the cock crow, thou shalt deny me thrice. 62 And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.

Chapter 18

Assurance of Salvation

Although temporary believers, and other unregenerate men, may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions that they are in the favour of God and in a state of salvation, such a hope on their part will perish.
♦ Job 8:13-14 So are the paths of all that forget God; and the hypocrite’s hope shall perish: 14 Whose hope shall be cut off, and whose trust shall be a spider’s web.

♦ Matthew 7:22-23 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? And in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? 23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.

Yet those who truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love Him in sincerity, and who endeavor to walk in all good conscience before Him, may be certainly assured in this life that they are in the state of grace, and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God.

♦ 1 John 2:3 And hereby we do know that we know him, if we keep his commandments.

♦ 1 John 3:14 We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not his brother abideth in death. 18 My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in truth. 19 And hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall assure our hearts before him. 21 Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, then have we confidence toward God. 24 And he that keepeth his commandments dwelleth in him, and he in him. And hereby we know that he abideth in us, by the Spirit which he hath given us.

♦ 1 John 5:13 These things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God; that ye may know that ye have eternal life, and that ye may believe on the name of the Son of God.

And such a hope shall never make them ashamed.

♦ Romans 5:2, 5 By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. 5 And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.

This assurance is not merely a conjectural persuasion nor even a probable persuasion based upon a fallible hope. It is an infallible assurance of faith
♦ Hebrews 6:11 And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end: 19 Which hope we have as an anchor of the soul, both sure and steadfast, and which entereth into that within the veil; founded on the blood and righteousness of Christ revealed in the Gospel.

♦ Hebrews 6:17-18 Wherein God, willing more abundantly to shew unto the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath: 18 That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us:

It is also founded upon the inward evidence of those graces of the Spirit in connection with definite promises made in the Scriptures,

♦ 2 Peter 1:4-5 Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust. 5 And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue; and to virtue knowledge;

♦ 2 Peter 1:10-11 Wherefore the rather, brethren, give diligence to make your calling and election sure: for if ye do these things, ye shall never fall: 11 For so an entrance shall be ministered unto you abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

and also on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption who witnesses with our spirits that we are the children of God,

♦ Romans 8:15-16 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:

and who uses the experience of assurance to keep our hearts both humble and holy.

♦ 1 John 3:1-3 Behold, what manner of love the Father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God: therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. 2 Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is. 3 And every man that hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as he is pure.

This infallible assurance is not so joined to the essence of faith that it is an automatic and inevitable experience. A true believer may wait long and fight with many difficulties before he becomes a partaker of it.
♦ Isaiah 50:10 Who is among you that feareth the LORD, that obeyeth the voice of his servant, that walketh in darkness, and hath no light? let him trust in the name of the LORD, and stay upon his God.

♦ Psalm 88:1-18 O LORD God of my salvation, I have cried day and night before thee: 2 Let my prayer come before thee: incline thine ear unto my cry; 3 For my soul is full of troubles: and my life draweth nigh unto the grave. 4 I am counted with them that go down into the pit: I am as a man that hath no strength: 5 Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom thou rememberest no more: and they are cut off from thy hand. 6 Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deeps.7 Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves. Selah. 8 Thou hast put away mine acquaintance far from me; thou hast made me an abomination unto them: I am shut up, and I cannot come forth. 9 Mine eye mourneth by reason of affliction: LORD, I have called daily upon thee, I have stretched out my hands unto thee. 10 Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead? shall the dead arise and praise thee? Selah. 11 Shall thy lovingkindness be declared in the grave? or thy faithfulness in destruction? 12 Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness? 13 But unto thee have I cried, O LORD; and in the morning shall my prayer prevent thee. 14 LORD, why castest thou off my soul? why hidest thou thy face from me? 15 I am afflicted and ready to die from my youth up: while I suffer thy terrors I am distracted. 16 Thy fierce wrath goeth over me; thy terrors have cut me off. 17 They came round about me daily like water; they compassed me about together. 18 Lover and friend hast thou put far from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness.

♦ Psalm 77:1-12 I cried unto God with my voice, even unto God with my voice; and he gave ear unto me. 2 In the day of my trouble I sought the Lord: my sore ran in the night, and ceased not: my soul refused to be comforted. 3 I remembered God, and was troubled: I complained, and my spirit was overwhelmed. Selah. 4Thou holdest mine eyes waking: I am so troubled that I cannot speak. 5 I have considered the days of old, the years of ancient times. 6 I call to remembrance my song in the night: I commune with mine own heart: and my spirit made diligent search. 7 Will the Lord cast off for ever? and will he be favourable no more? 8 Is his mercy clean gone for ever? doth his promise fail for evermore? 9 Hath God forgotten to be gracious? hath he in anger shut up his tender mercies? Selah. 10 And I said, This is my infirmity: but I will remember the years of the right hand of the most High. 11 I will remember the works of the LORD: surely I will remember thy wonders of old. 12 I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of thy doings.

Yet, being enabled by the spirit to know the things which are freely given to him by God, he may, without any extraordinary revelation attain this assurance by using the means of grace in the right way.

♦ 1 John 4:13 Hereby know we that we dwell in him, and he in us, because he hath given us of his Spirit.

♦ Hebrews 6:11-12 And we desire that every one of you do shew the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end: 12 That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.

Therefore it is the duty of every one to give the utmost diligence to make his calling and election sure, so that his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Spirit, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness for carrying out the duties of obedience.

♦ Romans 5:1-2, 5 Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: 2 By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.5 And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us.

♦ Romans 14:17 For the kingdom of God is not meat and drink; but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

♦ Psalm 119:32 I will run the way of thy commandments, when thou shalt enlarge my heart.

These duties are the natural fruits of assurance, for it is far from inclining men to slackness.

♦ Romans 6:1-2 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?

♦ Titus 2:11-12 For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men, 12 Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;

♦ Titus 2:14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.

True believers may have the assurance of their salvation in various ways shaken, diminished, or intermitted. This may be because of their negligence in preserving it,
♦ Song 5:2-3 I sleep, but my heart waketh: it is the voice of my beloved that knocketh, saying, Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled: for my head is filled with dew, and my locks with the drops of the night. 3I have put off my coat; how shall I put it on? I have washed my feet; how shall I defile them?

♦ Song 5:6 I opened to my beloved; but my beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone: my soul failed when he spake: I sought him, but I could not find him; I called him, but he gave me no Answer.

or by their falling into some special sin which wounds the conscience and grieves the Spirit,

♦ Psalm 51:8 Make me to hear joy and gladness; that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice.

♦ Psalm 51:12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit.

♦ Psalm 51:14 Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation: and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness.

or by some sudden or forceful temptation,

♦ Psalm 116:11 I said in my haste, All men are liars.

♦ Psalm 77:7-8 Will the Lord cast off for ever? and will he be favourable no more? 8 Is his mercy clean gone forever? Doth his promise fail for evermore?

♦ Psalm 31:22 For I said in my haste, I am cut off from before thine eyes: nevertheless thou heardest the voice of my supplications when I cried unto thee.

or by God’s withdrawing the light of His countenance, and causing even those who fear Him to walk in darkness and to have no light.

♦ Psalm 30:7 LORD, by thy favour thou hast made my mountain to stand strong: thou didst hide thy face, and I was troubled.

Yet, believers are never left without the seed of God

♦ 1 John 3:9 Whosoever is born of God doth not commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him: and he cannot sin, because he is born of God.

and life of faith,

♦ Luke 22:32 But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren.

that love of Christ and the brethren that sincerity of heart and that conscience about their spiritual duty. Out of these things, by the operation of the Spirit, their assurance can in due time be revived,

♦ Psalm 42:5 Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why art thou disquieted in me? hope thou in God: for I shall yet praise him for the help of his countenance.

♦ Psalm 42:11 Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why art thou disquieted within me? hope thou in God: for I shall yet praise him, who is the health of my countenance, and my God.

and in the meantime the presence of these graces preserves them from utter despair.

♦ Lamentations 3:26-31 It is good that a man should both hope and quietly wait for the salvation of the LORD. 27 It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth. 28

He sitteth alone and keepeth silence, because he hath borne it upon him. 29 He putteth his mouth in the dust; if so be there may be hope. 30 He giveth his cheek to him that smiteth him: he is filled full with reproach. 31 For the Lord will not cast off for ever:

Chapter 19

The Law of God

God gave to Adam a law of universal obedience which was written in his heart, and He gave him very specific instruction about not eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.
♦ Genesis 1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

♦ Eccles 7:29 Lo, this only have I found, that God hath made man upright; but they have sought out many inventions.

By this Adam and all his descendants were bound to personal, total, exact, and perpetual obedience,

♦ Romans 10:5 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

being promised life upon the fulfilling of the law, and threatened with death upon the breach of it. At the same time Adam was endued with power and ability to keep it.

♦ Galatians 3:10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written, Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.

♦ Galatians 3:12 And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.

The same law that was first written in the heart of man continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness after the Fall,
♦ Romans 2:14-15 For when the Gentiles, which have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves: 15Which shew the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another;)

and was delivered by God upon Mount Sinai in the ten commandments, and written in two tables, the first four containing our duty towards God, and the other six, our duty to man.

♦ Deuteronomy 10:4 And he wrote on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten commandments, which the LORD spake unto you in the mount out of the midst of the fire in the day of the assembly: and the LORD gave them unto me.

3 Besides this law, commonly called the moral law, God was pleased do give the people of Israel ceremonial laws containing several typical ordinances. These ordinances were partly about their worship, and in them Christ was prefigured along with His attributes and qualities, His actions, His sufferings and His benefits.

♦ Hebrews 10:1 For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

♦ Colossians 2:17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.

These ordinances also gave instructions about different moral duties.

♦ 1 Corinthians 5:7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us:

All of these ceremonial laws were appointed only until the time of reformation, when Jesus Christ the true Messiah and the only lawgiver, Who was furnished with power from the Father for this end, cancelled them and took them away.

♦ Colossians 2:14 Blotting out the handwriting of ordinances that was against us, which was contrary to us, and took it out of the way, nailing it to his cross;

♦ Colossians 2:16-17 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days: 17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.

To the people of Israel He also gave sundry judicial laws which expired when they ceased to be a nation. These are not binding on anyone now by virtue of their being part of the laws of that nation, but their general equity continue to be applicable in modern times.
♦ 1 Corinthians 9:8-10 Say I these things as a man? or saith not the law the same also? 9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen? 10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope.

The moral law ever binds to obedience everyone,
Romans 13:8-10 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. 9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.

♦ James 2:8 If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well:

♦ James 2:10-12 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. 11 For he that said, Do not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law. 12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty.

justified people as well as others, and not only out of regard for the matter contained in it, but also out of respect for the authority of God the Creator, Who gave the law.

♦ James 2:10-11 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. 11 For he that said, Do not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law.

Nor does Christ in the Gospel dissolve this law in any way, but He considerably strengthens our obligation to obey it.

♦ Matthew 5:17-19 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. 18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled. 19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.

♦ Romans 3:31 Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the law.

Although true believers are not under the law as a covenant of works, to be justified or condemned by it,
♦ Romans 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

♦ Galatians 2:16 Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ, even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law: for by the works of the law shall no flesh be justified.

♦ Romans 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

Romans 10:4 For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth.

yet it is of great use to them as well as to others, because as a rule of life it informs them of the will of God and their duty and directs and binds them to walk accordingly. It also reveals and exposes the sinful pollutions of their natures, hearts and lives, and using it for self-examination they may come to greater conviction of sin, greater humility and greater hatred of their sin.

♦ Romans 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.

♦ Romans 7:7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by the law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

They will also gain a clearer sight of their need of Christ and the perfection of His own obedience. It is of further use to regenerate people to restrain their corruptions, because of the way in which it forbids sin. The threatenings of the law serve to show what their sins actually deserve, and what troubles may be expected in this life because of these sins even by regenerate people who are freed from the curse and undiminished rigors of the law. The promises connected with the law also show believers God’s approval of obedience, and what blessings they may expect when the law is kept and obeyed, though blessing will not come to them because they have satisfied the law as a covenant of works. If a man does good and refrains from evil simply because the law encourages to the good and deters him from the evil, that is no evidence that he is under the law rather than under grace.

♦ Romans 6:12-14 Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts thereof. 13 Neither yield ye your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin: but yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God. 14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace.

♦ 1 Peter 3:8-13 Finally, be ye all of one mind, having compassion one of another, love as brethren, be pitiful, be courteous: 9 Not rendering evil for evil, or railing for railing: but contrariwise blessing; knowing that ye are thereunto called, that ye should inherit a blessing. 10 For he that will love life, and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips that they speak no guile: 11 Let him eschew evil, and do good; let him seek peace, and ensue it. 12 For the eyes of the Lord are over the righteous, and his ears are open unto their prayers: but the face of the Lord is against them that do evil. 13 And who is he that will harm you, if ye be followers of that which is good?

The aforementioned uses of the law are not contrary to the grace of the Gospel, but they sweetly comply with it, as the Spirit of Christ subdues and enables the will of man to do freely and cheerfully those things which the will of God, which is revealed in the law, requires to be done.
Galatians 3:21 Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid: for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.

♦ Ezekiel 36:27 And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them.

Chapter 20

The Gospel and its Influence

The covenant of works being broken by sin, and made unprofitable for life, God was pleased to promise Christ, the seed of the woman, as the means of calling the elect and bringing to life within them faith and repentance.
♦ Genesis 3:15 And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

In this promise the substance of the Gospel was revealed and shown to be the effectual for the conversion and salvation of sinners.

♦ Revelation 13:8 And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

This promise of Christ and the salvation which comes by Him, is revealed only by the Word of God.
♦ Romans 1:17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith: as it is written, The just shall live by faith.

The works of creation and providence with the light of nature do not reveal Christ or His grace even in a general or obscure way.

♦ Romans 10:14-15 How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? 15 And how shall they preach, except they be sent? as it is written, How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things!

♦ Romans 10:17 So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.

How much less, therefore, can those who are devoid of the revelation of Christ by the promise (or the Gospel) be enabled by the light of nature to arrive at saving faith or repentance.

♦ Proverbs 29:18 Where there is no vision, the people perish: but he that keepeth the law, happy is he.

♦ Isaiah 25:7 And he will destroy in this mountain the face of the covering cast over all people, and the vail that is spread over all nations.

Isaiah 60:2-3 For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. 3 And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.

The revelation of the Gospel unto sinners, made in divers times and by sundry parts, with the addition of promises and precepts for the obedience required therein, as to the nations and persons to whom it is granted, is merely of the sovereign will and good pleasure of God,
♦ Psalm 147:20 He hath not dealt so with any nation: and as for his judgments, they have not known them. Praise ye the LORD.

♦ Acts 16:7 After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered them not.

not being annexed by virtue of any promise to the due improvement of men’s natural abilities, by virtue of common light received without it, which none ever did make, or can do so;

♦ Romans 1:18-32 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; 19 Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them. 20 For the invisible things of him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: 21 Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. 22 Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, 23 And changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things. 24 Wherefore God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonour their own bodies between themselves: 25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen. 26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature: 27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompence of their error which was meet. 28 And even as they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient; 29 Being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, 30 Backbiters, haters of God, despiteful, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, 31 Without understanding, covenantbreakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful: 32 Who knowing the judgment of God, that they which commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.

and therefore in all ages, the preaching of the Gospel has been granted unto persons and nations, as to the extent or straitening of it, in great variety, according to the counsel of the will of God.

Although the Gospel is the only outward means of revealing Christ and saving grace, and as such is totally sufficient to accomplish this, yet more is necessary if men who are dead in trespasses are to be born again, brought to life or regenerated.
It is necessary for there to be an effectual, insuperable work of the Holy Spirit upon the whole soul to produce in them a new spiritual life.

♦ Psalm 110:3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.

♦ 1 Corinthians 2:14 But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.

♦ Ephesians 1:19-20 And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, 20 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places,

Without this no other means will bring about their conversion to God.

♦ John 6:44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.

♦ 2 Corinthians 4:4 In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

♦ 2 Corinthians 4:6 For God, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts, to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.

Chapter 21

Christian Liberty and

Liberty of Conscience

The liberty which Christ has purchased for believers under the Gospel, lies in their freedom from the guilt of sin and the condemning wrath of God, from the rigours and curse of the law,
♦ Galatians 3:13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:

and in their deliverance from this present evil world,

♦ Galatians 1:4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:

from bondage to Satan,

♦ Acts 26:18 To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.

from dominion of sin,

♦ Romans 8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

from the harm of afflictions,

♦ Romans 8:28 And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.

from the fear and sting of death, from the victory of the grave,

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:54-57 So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. 55 O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? 56 The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. 57 But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.

and from everlasting damnation.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 1:10 When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.

This liberty is also seen in their free access to God, and their ability to yield obedience to Him not out of slavish fear,

♦ Romans 8:15 For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

but with childlike love and willing minds.

♦ Luke 1:73-75 The oath which he sware to our father Abraham, 74 That he would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies might serve him without fear, 75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.

♦ 1 John 4:18 There is no fear in love; but perfect love casteth out fear: because fear hath torment. He that feareth is not made perfect in love.

All these freedoms were also experienced in substance by true believers under the Old Testament law,

♦ Galatians 3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.

♦ Galatians 3:14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

but for New Testament Christians this liberty is further enlarged, for they have freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law to which the Jewish church was subjected. They also have greater boldness of access to the throne of grace and fuller communications of the free Spirit of God than believers under the law normally experienced.

♦ John 7:38-39 He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water. 39 (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)

♦ Hebrews 10:19-21 Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Jesus, 20 By a new and living way, which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh; 21 And having an high priest over the house of God;

God alone is Lord of the conscience,
♦ James 4:12 There is one lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy: who art thou that judgest another?

♦ Romans 14:4 Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be holden up: for God is able to make him stand.

and has left it free from all doctrines and commandments of men which are in any respect contrary to His Word, or not contained in it.

♦ Acts 4:19 But Peter and John answered and said unto them, Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye.

♦ Acts 4:29 And now, Lord, behold their threatenings: and grant unto thy servants, that with all boldness they may speak thy word,

♦ 1 Corinthians 7:23 Ye are bought with a price; be not ye the servants of men.

♦ Matthew 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

Thus to believe such doctrines or to obey such commands out of conscience, is to betray true liberty of conscience.

♦ Colossians 2:20 Wherefore if ye be dead with Christ from the rudiments of the world, why, as though living in the world, are ye subject to ordinances,

♦ Colossians 2:22-23 Which all are to perish with the using;) after the commandments and doctrines of men? 23 Which things have indeed a shew of wisdom in will worship, and humility, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh.

The requiring of an implicit faith, an absolute and blind obedience, is to destroy liberty of conscience and reason also.

♦ 1 Corinthians 3:5 Who then is Paul, and who is Apollos, but ministers by whom ye believed, even as the Lord gave to every man?

♦ 2 Corinthians 1:24 Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy: for by faith ye stand.

3 They who on pretence of Christian liberty practice any sin, or cherish any sinful lust, pervert the main purpose of the grace of the Gospel to their own destruction.

♦ Romans 6:1-2 What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that are dead to sin, live any longer therein?

They completely destroy the object of Christian liberty, which is that we, being delivered out of the hands of all our enemies, might serve the Lord without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him, all the days of our lives.

♦ Galatians 5:13 For, brethren, ye have been called unto liberty; only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh, but by love serve one another.

♦ 2 Peter 2:18 For when they speak great swelling words of vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, through much wantonness, those that were clean escaped from them who live in error.

♦ 2 Peter 2:21 For it had been better for them not to have known the way of righteousness, than, after they have known it, to turn from the holy commandment delivered unto them.

Chapter 22

Worship and the Sabbath Day

The light of nature shows that there is a God Who has lordship and sovereignty over all, is just and good, and Who does good to all. Therefore He is to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served, with all the heart and all the soul, and with all the might.
♦ Jeremiah 10:7 Who would not fear thee, O King of nations? for to thee doth it appertain: forasmuch as among all the wise men of the nations, and in all their kingdoms, there is none like unto thee.

♦ Mark 12:33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices.

But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God has been instituted by Himself, ♦ Deuteronomy 12:32 What thing soever I command you, observe to do it: thou shalt not add thereto, nor diminish from it.

and therefore our method of worship is limited by His own revealed will. He may not be worshipped according to the imagination and devices of men, nor the suggestions of Satan. He may not be worshipped by way of visible representations, or by any other way not prescribed in the Holy Scriptures.

♦ Exodus 20:4-6 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; 6 And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.

Worship is to be given to God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to Him alone;
♦ Matthew 4:9-10 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me. 10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.

♦ John 4:23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.

♦ Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

not to angels, saints, or any other creatures.

♦ Romans 1:25 Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.

♦ Colossians 2:18 Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshly mind,

♦ Revelation 19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.

And since the Fall, worship is not to be given without a mediator,

♦ John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

nor by any other mediation than that of Christ.

♦ 1 Timothy 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

Prayer, with thanksgiving, is one part of natural worship, and this God requires of all men.
♦ Psalm 95:1-7 O come, let us sing unto the LORD: let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation. 2 Let us come before his presence with thanksgiving, and make a joyful noise unto him with psalms. 3 For the LORD is a great God, and a great King above all gods. 4 In his hand are the deep places of the earth: the strength of the hills is his also. 5 The sea is his, and he made it: and his hands formed the dry land. 6 O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker. 7

For he is our God; and we are the people of his pasture, and the sheep of his hand. To day if ye will hear his voice,

♦ Psalm 65:2 O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all flesh come.

But to be accepted it must be made in the name of the Son,

♦ John 14:13-14 And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son. 14 If ye shall ask any thing in my name, I will do it.

by the help of the Spirit,

♦ Romans 8:26 Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.

and according to His will.

♦ 1 John 5:14 And this is the confidence that we have in him, that, if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us:

It must be made with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance; and corporate prayer must be made in a known language.

♦ 1 Corinthians 14:16-17 Else when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he that occupieth the room of the unlearned say Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not what thou sayest? 17 For thou verily givest thanks well, but the other is not edified.

Prayer is to be made for lawful things, and for all kinds of people who are alive now or who shall live in the future,
♦ 1 Timothy 2:1-2 I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; 2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

♦ 2 Samuel 7:29 Therefore now let it please thee to bless the house of thy servant, that it may continue for ever before thee: for thou, O Lord GOD, hast spoken it: and with thy blessing let the house of thy servant be blessed for ever.

but not for the dead,

♦ 2 Samuel 12:21-23 Then said his servants unto him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread. 22 And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell whether GOD will be gracious to me, that the child may live? 23 But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast? can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me.

nor for those who are known to have sinned the ‘sin leading to death’.

♦ 1 John 5:16 If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it.

The reading of the Scriptures,
♦ 1 Timothy 4:13 Till I come, give attendance to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine. preaching and hearing the Word of God,

♦ 2 Timothy 4:2 Preach the word; be instant in season, out of season; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and doctrine.

♦ Luke 8:18 Take heed therefore how ye hear: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given; and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.

the teaching and admonishing of one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, singing with grace in our hearts to the Lord;

♦ Colossians 3:16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom; teaching and admonishing one another in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord.

♦ Ephesians 5:19 Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; as well as the administration of baptism

♦ Matthew 28:19-20 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

and the Lord’s Supper,

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

are all parts of the worship of God. These are to be performed in obedience to Him, with understanding, faith, reverence and godly fear. Also to be used in a holy and reverent manner on special occasions are times of solemn humiliation, fastings,

♦ Esther 4:16 Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish.

♦ Joel 2:12 Therefore also now, saith the LORD, turn ye even to me with all your heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning:

and thanksgivings.

♦ Exodus 15:1-19 Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spake, saying, I will sing unto the LORD, for he hath triumphed gloriously: the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea. 2 The LORD is my strength and song, and he is become my salvation: he is my God, and I will prepare him an habitation; my father’s God, and I will exalt him. 3 The LORD is a man of war: the LORD is his name. 4 Pharaoh’s chariots and his host hath he cast into the sea: his chosen captains also are drowned in the Red sea. 5 The depths have covered them: they sank into the bottom as a stone. 6 Thy right hand, O LORD, is become glorious in power: thy right hand, O LORD, hath dashed in pieces the enemy. 7 And in the greatness of thine excellency thou hast overthrown them that rose up against thee: thou sentest forth thy wrath, which consumed them as stubble. 8 And with the blast of thy nostrils the waters were gathered together, the floods stood upright as an heap, and the depths were congealed in the heart of the sea. 9 The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the spoil; my lust shall be satisfied upon them; I will draw my sword, my hand shall destroy them. 10 Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered them: they sank as lead in the mighty waters. 11 Who is like unto thee, O LORD, among the gods? who is like thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders? 12 Thou stretchedst out thy right hand, the earth swallowed them. 13 Thou in thy mercy hast led forth the people which thou hast redeemed: thou hast guided them in thy strength unto thy holy habitation. 14 The people shall hear, and be afraid: sorrow shall take hold on the inhabitants of Palestina. 15 Then the dukes of Edom shall be amazed; the mighty men of Moab, trembling shall take hold upon them; all the inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away. 16 Fear And dread shall fall upon them; by the greatness of thine arm they shall be as still as a stone; till thy people pass over, O LORD, till the people pass over, which thou hast purchased. 17 Thou shalt bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O LORD, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in, in the Sanctuary, O Lord, which thy hands have established. 18 The LORD shall reign for ever and ever. 19

For the horse of Pharaoh went in with his chariots and with his horsemen into the sea, and the LORD brought again the waters of the sea upon them; but the children of Israel went on dry land in the midst of the sea.

♦ Psalm 107:1 O give thanks unto the LORD, for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever. 2 Let the redeemed of the LORD say so, whom he hath redeemed from the hand of the enemy; 3 And gathered them out of the lands, from the east, and from the west, from the north, and from the south. 4 They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way; they found no city to dwell in. 5 Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted in them. 6 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, and he delivered them out of their distresses. 7 And he led them forth by the right way, that they might go to a city of habitation. 8 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men! 9 For he satisfieth the longing soul, and filleth the hungry soul with goodness. 10 Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, being bound in affliction and iron; 11Because they rebelled against the words of God, and contemned the counsel of the most High: 12 Therefore he brought down their heart with labour; they fell down, and there was none to help. 13 Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, and he saved them out of their distresses. 14 He brought them out of darkness and the shadow of death, and brake their bands in sunder. 15 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men! 16 For he hath broken the gates of brass, and cut the bars of iron in sunder. 17 Fools because of their transgression, and because of their iniquities, are afflicted. 18 Their soul abhorreth all manner of meat; and they draw near unto the gates of death. 19 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and he saveth them out of their distresses. 20 He sent his word, and healed them, and delivered them from their destructions. 21 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men! 22And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving, and declare his works with rejoicing. 23 They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters; 24 These see the works of the LORD, and his wonders in the deep. 25 For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof. 26 They mount up to the heaven, they go down again to the depths: their soul is melted because of trouble. 27They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit’s end. 28 Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses. 29 He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thereof are still. 30 Then are they glad because they be quiet; so he bringeth them unto their desired haven. 31 Oh that men would praise the LORD for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men! 32 Let them exalt him also in the congregation of the people, and praise him in the assembly of the elders. 33 He turneth rivers into a wilderness, and the watersprings into dry ground; 34 A fruitful land into barrenness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein. 35 He turneth the wilderness into a standing water, and dry ground into watersprings. 36 And there he maketh the hungry to dwell, that they may prepare a city for habitation; 37 And sow the fields, and plant vineyards, which may yield fruits of increase. 38 He blesseth them also, so that they are multiplied greatly; and suffereth not their cattle to decrease. 39 Again, they are minished and brought low through oppression, affliction, and sorrow. 40 He poureth contempt upon princes, and causeth them to wander in the wilderness, where there is no way. 41 Yet setteth he the poor on high from affliction, and maketh him families like a flock. 42 The righteous shall see it, and rejoice: and all iniquity shall stop her mouth. 43 Whoso is wise, and will observe these things, even they shall understand the lovingkindness of the LORD.

Under the Gospel neither prayer nor any other part of religious worship is tied to, or made more acceptable by, any place in which it is performed or towards which it is directed. God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth,
♦ John 4:21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.

♦ Mal 1:11 For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same my name shall be great among the Gentiles; and in every place incense shall be offered unto my name, and a pure offering: for my name shall be great among the heathen, saith the LORD of hosts.

♦ 1 Timothy 2:8 I will therefore that men pray every where, lifting up holy hands, without wrath and doubting. whether in private families

♦ Acts 10:2 A devout man, and one that feared God with all his house, which gave much alms to the people, and prayed to God alway. daily,

♦ Matthew 6:11 Give us this day our daily bread.

♦ Psalm 55:17 Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I pray, and cry aloud: and he shall hear my voice.

in secret by each individual,

♦ Matthew 6:6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly.

or solemnly in the public assemblies. These are not to be carelessly or willfully neglected or forsaken, when God by His Word and providence calls us to them.

♦ Hebrews 10:25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.

♦ Acts 2:42 And they continued stedfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.

As it is the law of nature that in general a proportion of time, by God’s appointment, should be set apart for the worship of God, so He has given in His Word a positive, moral and perpetual commandment, binding upon all men, in all ages to this effect. He has particularly appointed one day in seven for a Sabbath to be kept holy for Him.
♦ Exodus 20:8 Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.

From the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ this was the last day of the week, and from the resurrection of Christ it was changed to the first day of the week and called the Lord’s Day.

♦ 1 Corinthians 16:1-2 Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I have given order to the churches of Galatia, even so do ye. 2 Upon the first day of the week let every one of you lay by him in store, as God hath prospered him, that there be no gatherings when I come.

♦ Acts 20:7 And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight.

This is to be continued until the end of the world as the Christian Sabbath, the observation of the last day of the week having been abolished.

♦ Revelation 1:10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord’s day, and heard behind me a great voice, as of a trumpet,

The Sabbath is kept holy to the Lord by those who, after the necessary preparation of their hearts and prior arranging of their common affairs, observe all day a holy rest from their own works, words and thoughts about their worldly employment and recreations,
♦ Isaiah 58:13 If thou turn away thy foot from the Sabbath, from doing thy pleasure on my holy day; and call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD, honourable; and shalt honour him, not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words:

♦ Nehemiah 13:15-22 In those days saw I in Judah some treading wine presses on the Sabbath, and bringing in sheaves, and lading asses; as also wine, grapes, and figs, and all manner of burdens, which they brought into Jerusalem on the Sabbath day: and I testified against them in the day wherein they sold victuals. 16 There dwelt men of Tyre also therein, which brought fish, and all manner of ware, and sold on the Sabbath unto the children of Judah, and in Jerusalem. 17 Then I contended with the nobles of Judah, and said unto them, What evil thing is this that ye do, and profane the Sabbath day? 18 Did not your fathers thus, and did not our God bring all this evil upon us, and upon this city? yet ye bring more wrath upon Israel by profaning the Sabbath. 19 And it came to pass, that when the gates of Jerusalem began to be dark before the Sabbath, I commanded that the gates should be shut, and charged that they should not be opened till after the Sabbath: and some of my servants set I at the gates, that there should no burden be brought in on the Sabbath day. 20 So the merchants and sellers of all kind of ware lodged without Jerusalem once or twice. 21 Then I testified against them, and said unto them, Why lodge ye about the wall? if ye do so again, I will lay hands on you. From that time forth came they no more on the Sabbath. 22 And I commanded the Levites that they should cleanse themselves, and that they should come and keep the gates, to sanctify the Sabbath day. Remember me, O my God, concerning this also, and spare me according to the greatness of thy mercy.

and give themselves over to the public and private acts of worship for the whole time, and to carrying out duties of necessity and mercy.

♦ Matthew 12:1-13 At that time Jesus went on the Sabbath day through the corn; and his disciples were an hungered, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. 2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is

not lawful to do upon the Sabbath day. 3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hundred, and they that were with him; 4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests? 5 Or have ye not read in the law, how that on the Sabbath days the priests in the temple profane the Sabbath, and are blameless? 6 But I say unto you, That in this place is one greater than the temple. 7 But if ye had known what this meaneth, I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless. 8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the Sabbath day. 9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue: 10 And, behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath days? that they might accuse him. 11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the Sabbath day, will he not lay hold on it, and lift it out? 12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? Wherefore it is lawful to do well on the Sabbath days. 13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thine hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.

Chapter 23

Lawful Oaths and Vows

A lawful oath is an act of religious worship, in which the person swearing in truth, righteousness, and judgment, solemnly calls God to witness what he swears,
♦ Exodus 20:7 Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.

♦ Deuteronomy 10:20 Thou shalt fear the LORD thy God; him shalt thou serve, and to him shalt thou cleave, and swear by his name.

♦ Jeremiah 4:2 And thou shalt swear, The LORD liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him, and in him shall they glory.

and to judge him according to the truth or falsity of it.

♦ 2 Chronicles 6:22-23 If a man sin against his neighbour, and an oath be laid upon him to make him swear, and the oath come before thine altar in this house; 23 Then hear thou from heaven, and do, and judge thy servants, by requiting the wicked, by recompensing his way upon his own head; and by justifying the righteous, by giving him according to his righteousness.

Only by the name of God can a righteous oath be sworn, and only if it is used with the utmost fear of God and reverence. Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly by the glorious and awesome name of God, or to swear by any other name or thing, is sinful, and to be regarded with disgust and detestation.
♦ Matthew 5:34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne:

♦ Matthew 5:37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

♦ James 5:12 But above all things, my brethren, swear not, neither by heaven, neither by the earth, neither by any other oath: but let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnation.

But in matters of weight and moment, for the confirmation of truth, and for the ending of strife, an oath is sanctioned by the Word of God.

♦ Hebrews 6:16 For men verily swear by the greater: and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all strife.

♦ 2 Corinthians 1:23 Moreover I call God for a record upon my soul, that to spare you I came not as yet unto Corinth.

Therefore a lawful oath being imposed by a lawful authority can rightly be taken in such circumstances.

♦ Nehemiah 13:25 And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves.

Whoever takes an oath sanctioned by the Word of God is bound to consider theweightiness of so solemn an act, and affirm or confess to nothing except that which he knows to be true. For by rash, false, and vain oaths, the Lord is provoked and because of them this land mourns.
♦ Lev 19:12 And ye shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.

♦ Jeremiah 23:10For the land is full of adulterers; for because of swearing the land mourneth; the pleasant places of the wilderness are dried up, and their course is evil, and their force is not right.

An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words without equivocation or mental reservation.
♦ Psalm 24:4 He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not lifted up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn deceitfully.

A vow, which is not to be made to any creature but to God alone, is to be made and performed with all the utmost care and faithfulness.
♦ Psalm 76:11 Vow, and pay unto the LORD your God: let all that be round about him bring presents unto him that ought to be feared.

♦ Genesis 28:20-22And Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way that I go, and will give me bread to eat, and raiment to put on, 21

So that I come again to my father’s house in peace; then shall the LORD be my God: 22 And this stone, which I have set for a pillar, shall be God’s house: and of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee.

But monastical vows (as in the Church of Rome) of a perpetual single life,

♦ 1 Corinthians 7:2 Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband.

♦ 1 Corinthians 7:9 But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn. professed poverty,

♦ Ephesians 4:28 Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.

and regular obedience, so far from being degrees of higher perfection, are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.

♦ Matthew 19:11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given.

Chapter 24

The Civil Magistrate

God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil magistrates to be under Him, over the people, for His own glory and the public good. For this purpose He has armed them with the power of the sword, agement of those that do good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.
♦ Romans 13:1-4 Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers. For there is no power but of God: the powers that be are ordained of God. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. 3 For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: 4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

It is lawful for Christians to accept and carry out the duties of a magistrate when called upon. In the performance of such office they are particularly responsible for maintaining justice and peace
♦ 2 Samuel 23:3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God.

♦ Psalm 82:3-4 Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the afflicted and needy. 4 Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked.

by application of the right and beneficial laws of the nation. Also, to maintain justice and peace, they may lawfully (under the New Testament) engage in war if it is just and essential.

♦ Luke 3:14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages.

Because civil magistrates are established by God for the purposes previously defined, we ought to be subject to all their lawful commands as part of our obedience to God, not only to avoid punishment, but for conscience sake.
♦ Romans 13:5-7 Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience sake. 6 For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God’s ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. 7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honour to whom honour.

♦ 1 Peter 2:17 Honour all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honour the king.

We ought also to make supplications and prayers for rulers and all that are in authority, that under them we may live a quiet and peaceable life, in all godliness and honesty.

♦ 1 Timothy 2:1-2 I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks, be made for all men; 2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

Chapter 25

Marriage

Marriage is to be between one man and one woman. It is not lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband, at the same time.
♦ Genesis 2:24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.

♦ Matthew 2:15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

♦ Matthew 19:5-6 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.

Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife, for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and for preventing uncleanness.
♦ Genesis 2:18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.

♦ Genesis 1:28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

♦ 1 Corinthians 7:2,9 Nevertheless, to avoid fornication, let every man have his own wife, and let every woman have her own husband. 9 But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.

It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry if they are able with judgment to give their consent.
♦ Hebrews 13:4 Marriage is honourable in all, and the bed undefiled: but whoremongers and adulterers God will judge.

♦ 1 Timothy 4:3 Forbidding to marry, and commanding to abstain from meats, which God hath created to be received with thanksgiving of them which believe and know the truth.

But it is the duty of Christians to marry in the Lord,

♦ 1 Corinthians 7:39 The wife is bound by the law as long as her husband liveth; but if her husband be dead, she is at liberty to be married to whom she will; only in the Lord.

and therefore those who profess the true religion should not marry with infidels or idolaters. Nor should those who are godly be unequally yoked by marrying with those who are wicked in their life or who maintain heretical teaching condemned to judgment.

♦ Nehemiah 13:25-27 And I contended with them, and cursed them, and smote certain of them, and plucked off their hair, and made them swear by God, saying, Ye shall not give your daughters unto their sons, nor take their daughters unto your sons, or for yourselves. 26 Did not Solomon king of Israel sin by these things? yet among many nations was there no king like him, who was beloved of his God, and God made him king over all Israel: nevertheless even him did outlandish women cause to sin. 27 Shall we then hearken unto you to do all this great evil, to transgress against our God in marrying strange wives?

Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity [i.e. a relationship by blood or by a common ancestor] forbidden in the Word,
♦ Leviticus 18:1-30 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, I am the LORD your God. 3 After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances. 4 Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein:

I am the LORD your God. 5 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD. 6 None of you shall approach to any that is near of kin to him, to uncover their nakedness: I am the LORD. 7 The nakedness of thy father, or the nakedness of thy mother, shalt thou not uncover: she is thy mother; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. 8 The nakedness of thy father’s wife shalt thou not uncover: it is thy father’s nakedness. 9 The nakedness of thy sister, the daughter of thy father, or daughter of thy mother, whether she be born at home, or born abroad, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover. 10 The nakedness of thy son’s daughter, or of thy daughter’s daughter, even their nakedness thou shalt not uncover: for theirs is thine own nakedness. 11 The nakedness of thy father’s wife’s daughter, begotten of thy father, she is thy sister, thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. 12 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s sister: she is thy father’s near kinswoman. 13 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy mother’s sister: for she is thy mother’s near kinswoman. 14 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy father’s brother, thou shalt not approach to his wife: she is thine aunt. 15 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter in law: she is thy son’s wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. 16 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother’s wife: it is thy brother’s nakedness. 17 Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son’s daughter, or her daughter’s daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness. 18 Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life time. 19 Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness. 20 Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour’s wife, to defile thyself with her. 21 And thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the fire to Molech, neither shalt thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD. 22 Thou shalt not lie with mankind, as with womankind: it is abomination. 23 Neither shalt thou lie with any beast to defile thyself therewith: neither shall any woman stand before a beast to lie down thereto: it is confusion. 24 Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you: 25 And the land is defiled: therefore I do visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants. 26 Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, and shall not commit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor any stranger that sojourneth among you: 27 (For all these abominations have the men of the land done, which were before you, and the land is defiled;) 28 That the land spue not you out also, when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that were before you. 29 For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the souls that commit them shall be cut off from among their people. 30 Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the LORD your God.

nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any law of man or consent of parties so that such persons may live together as man and wife.

♦ Mark 6:18 For John had said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother’s wife.

♦ 1 Corinthians 5:1 It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife.

Chapter 26

The Church

The catholic or universal Church, which may be called invisible (in respect of the internal work of the Spirit and truth of grace) consists of the entire number of the elect, all those who have been, who are, or who shall be gathered into one under Christ, Who is the Head. This universal Church is the wife, the body, the fullness of Him Who fills all in all.
♦ Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,

♦ Colossians 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.

♦ Ephesians 1:10 That in the dispensation of the fullness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:

♦ Ephesians 1:22-23 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church, 23 Which is his body, the fullness of him that filleth all in all.

♦ Ephesians 5:23 For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the Saviour of the body.

♦ Ephesians 5:27 That he might present it to himself a glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish.

♦ Ephesians 5:32 This is a great mystery: but I speak concerning Christ and the church.

All people throughout the world who profess the faith of the Gospel and obedience to Christ on its terms, and who do not destroy their profession by any errors which contradict or overthrow Gospel fundamentals, or by unholy behavior, are visible saints
♦ 1 Corinthians 1:2 Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours:

♦ Acts 11:26 And when he had found him, he brought him unto Antioch. And it came to pass, that a whole year they assembled themselves with the church, and taught much people. And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch.

and may be regarded as such. All individual congregations ought to be constituted of such people.

♦ Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

♦ Ephesians 1:20-22 Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, 21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come: 22 And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,

The purest churches under Heaven are subject to mixture and error,
♦ 1 Corinthians 5:1-13 It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father’s wife. 2 And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you. 3 For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, concerning him that hath so done this deed, 4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5 To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus. 6 Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? 7 Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: 8 Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. 9 I wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators: 10 Yet not altogether with the fornicators of this world, or with the covetous, or extortioners, or with idolaters; for then must ye needs go out of the world. 11 But now I have written unto you not to keep company, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, or an extortioner; with such an one no not to eat. 12 For what have I to do to judge them also that are without? do not ye judge them that are within? 13 But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person.

♦ Revelation 2:1-29 Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks; 2 I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars: 3 And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name’s sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted. 4 Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love. 5 Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent. 6 But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate. 7 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God. 8 And unto the angel of the church in Smyrna write; These things saith the first and the last, which was dead, and is alive; 9 I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan. 10 Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer: behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison,

that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. 11 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death. 12 And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges; 13 I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth. 14 But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication. 15 So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate. 16 Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth. 17 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it. 18 And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass; 19 I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first. 20 Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols. 21 And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not. 22 Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds. 23 And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works. 24 But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak; I will put upon you none other burden. 25 But that which ye have already hold fast till I come. 26 And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations: 27 And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father. 28 And I will give him the morning star. 29 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

♦ Revelation 3:1- And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead. 2 Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God. 3 Remember therefore how thou hast received and heard, and hold fast, and repent. If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee. 4 Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with me in white: for they are worthy. 5 He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment; and I will not blot out his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father, and before his angels. 6 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. 7 And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write; These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth; 8 I know thy works: behold, I have set before thee an open door, and no man can shut it: for thou hast a little strength, and hast kept my word, and hast not denied my name. 9 Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come and worship before thy feet, and to know that I have loved thee. 10 Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth. 11 Behold, I come quickly: hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown. 12 Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God: and I will write upon him my new name. 13 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. 14 And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God; 15 I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot. 16 So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth. 17 Because thou sayest, I am rich, and increased with goods, and have need of nothing; and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked: 18 I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see. 19 As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten: be zealous therefore, and repent. 20 Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any man hear my voice, and open the door, I will come in to him, and will sup with him, and he with me. 21 To him that overcometh will I grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne. 22 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

and some have degenerated so much that they have ceased to be churches of Christ and have become synagogues of Satan.

♦ Revelation 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:11-12 And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: 12 That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.

Nevertheless Christ always has had, and always will (to the end of time) have a kingdom in this world, made up of those who believe in Him, and make profession of His name.

♦ Matthew 16:18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.

♦ Psalm 72:17 His name shall endure for ever: his name shall be continued as long as the sun: and men shall be blessed in him: all nations shall call him blessed.

♦ Psalm 102:28 The children of thy servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before thee.

♦ Revelation 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

The Lord Jesus Christ is the Head of the Church. In Him, by the appointment of the Father, is vested in a supreme and sovereign manner all power for the calling, institution, order, or government of the Church.
♦ Colossians 1:18 And he is the head of the body, the church: who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.

♦ Matthew 18:18-20 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

♦ Ephesians 4:11-12 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ:

The Pope of Rome cannot in any sense be head of the Church, but he is that antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, who exalts himself in the church against Christ and all that is called God, who the Lord shall destroy with the brightness of His coming.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 2:2-9 That ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. 3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; 4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, shewing himself that he is God. 5 Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? 6 And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. 7 For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let, until he be taken out of the way. 8 And then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming: 9 Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders,

In the exercise of the authority which has been entrusted to Him, the Lord Jesus calls to Himself from out of the world, through the ministry of His Word, by His Spirit, those who are given to Him by His Father,
♦ John 10:16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.

♦ John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.

so that they may walk before Him in all the ways of obedience which He prescribes to them in His Word.

♦ Matthew 28:20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

Those who are thus called, He commands to walk together in particular societies or churches, for their mutual edification, and for the due performance of that public worship, which He requires of them in the world.

♦ Matthew 18:15-20 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven. 20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.

The members of these churches are saints because they have been called by Christ,
♦ Romans 1:7 To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

♦ 1 Corinthians 1:2 Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called to be saints, with all that in every place call upon the name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours:

and because they visibly manifest and give evidence of their obedience to that call by their profession and walk. Such saints willingly consent to walk together according to the appointment of Christ, giving themselves up to the Lord and to one another, according to God’s will, in avowed subjection to the ordinances of the Gospel.

♦ Acts 2:41-42 Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. 42 And they continued stedfastly in the apostles’ doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.

♦ Acts 5:13,14 And of the rest durst no man join himself to them: but the people magnified them. 14 And believers were the more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women.)

♦ 2 Corinthians 9:13 Whiles by the experiment of this ministration they glorify God for your professed subjection unto the gospel of Christ, and for your liberal distribution unto them, and unto all men;

To each of these churches thus gathered, according to the Lord’s mind as declared in His Word, He has given all the power and authority which is in any way required for them to carry on the order of worship and discipline which He has instituted for them to observe. He has also given all the commands and rules for the due and right exercise of this power.
♦ Matthew 18:17-18 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican. 18 Verily I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

♦ 1 Corinthians 5:4, 5 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 5 To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.

♦ 1 Corinthians 5:13 But them that are without God judgeth. Therefore put away from among yourselves that wicked person.

♦ 2 Corinthians 2:6-8 Sufficient to such a man is this punishment, which was inflicted of many. 7 So that contrariwise ye ought rather to forgive him, and comfort him, lest perhaps such a one should be swallowed up with overmuch sorrow. 8 Wherefore I beseech you that ye would confirm your love toward him.

A particular church gathered and completely organized according to the mind of Christ, consists of officers and members. The officers appointed by Christ to be chosen and set apart by the church are bishops or elders and deacons. These are to be appointed for the peculiar administration of ordinances and the execution of power or duty with which the Lord has entrusted them and to which He has called them. This pattern of church order is to be continued to the end of the world.
♦ Acts 20:17, 28 And from Miletus he sent to Ephesus, and called the elders of the church. 28 Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.

♦ Philippians 1:1 Paul and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons:

The way appointed by Christ for the calling of any person fitted and gifted by the Holy Spirit for the office of bishop or elder in a church, is that he is to be chosen by the common consent and vote of the church itself.
♦ Acts 14:23 And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they believed.

Such a person should be solemnly set apart by fasting and prayer, with the laying on of hands of the eldership of the church (if there be any previously appoint elder or elders).

♦ 1 Timothy 4:14 Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying on of the hands of the presbytery.

The way of Christ for the calling of a deacon is that he is also to be chosen by the common consent and vote of the church and set apart by prayer, with the laying on of hands.

♦ Acts 6:3, 5,6 Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business. 5 And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch: 6 Whom they set before the apostles: and when they had prayed, they laid their hands on them.

Because the work of pastors is to apply themselves constantly to the service of Christ in His churches by the ministry of the Word and prayer, and by watching for their souls as they that must give an account to Him,
♦ Acts 6:4 But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.

♦ Hebrews 13:17 Obey them that have the rule over you, and submit yourselves: for they watch for your souls, as they that must give account, that they may do it with joy, and not with grief: for that is unprofitable for you.

the churches to which they minister have a pressing obligation to give them not only all due respect, but also to impart to them a share of all their good things, according to their ability.

♦ 1 Timothy 5:17-18 Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labor in the word and doctrine. 18 For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The laborer is worthy of his reward.

♦ Galatians 6:6-7 Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things. 7 Be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a man soweth, that shall he also reap.

This must be so done that the pastors may have a comfortable supply and that they may not have to be entangled in secular affairs,

♦ 2 Timothy 2:4 No man that warreth entangleth himself with the affairs of this life; that he may please him who hath chosen him to be a soldier.

and may also be able to exercise hospitality towards others. All this is required by the law of nature and by the express command of our Lord Jesus, Who has ordained that they that preach the Gospel should live by the Gospel.

♦ 1 Timothy 3:2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;

♦ 1 Corinthians 9:6-14 Or I only and Barnabas, have not we power to forbear working? 7 Who goeth a warfare any time at his own charges? Who planteth a vineyard, and eateth not of the fruit thereof? or who feedeth a flock, and eateth not of the milk of the flock? 8 Say I these things as a man? or saith not the law the same also? 9 For it is written in the law of Moses, Thou shalt not muzzle the mouth of the ox that treadeth out the corn. Doth God take care for oxen? 10 Or saith he it altogether for our sakes? For our sakes, no doubt, this is written: that he that ploweth should plow in hope; and that he that thresheth in hope should be partaker of his hope. 11 If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things? 12 If others be partakers of this power over you, are not we rather? Nevertheless we have not used this power; but suffer all things, lest we should hinder the gospel of Christ. 13 Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? 14 Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.

Although an obligation lies on the elders or pastors of the churches to be urgently preaching the Word by virtue of their office, yet the work of preaching the Word is not exclusively confined to them. Therefore others who are also gifted and qualified by the Holy Spirit for the task, and who are approved and called by the church, may and ought to perform it.
♦ Acts 11:19-21 Now they which were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen travelled as far as Phenice, and Cyprus, and Antioch, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only. 20 And some of them were men of Cyprus and Cyrene, which, when they were come to Antioch, spake unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus. 21 And the hand of the Lord was with them: and a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord.

♦ 1 Peter 4:10-11 As every man hath received the gift, even so minister the same one to another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. 11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

All believers are bound to join themselves to particular churches when and where they have opportunity so to do, and all who are admitted into the privileges of a church, are also under the censures and government of that church, in accordance with the rule of Christ.
♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:14 Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 14-15 Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the tradition which he received of us. 14 And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, note that man, and have no company with him, that he may be ashamed. 15 Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother.

No church members, because of any offence which has been given them by a fellow member, once they have performed their prescribed duty towards the person who has caused the offence, may disturb church order in anyway, or be absent from the meetings of the church or the administration of any ordinances on account of any such offence. On the contrary, they are to wait upon Christ in the further proceedings of the church.
♦ Matthew 18:15-17 Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone: if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother. 16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established. 17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man and a publican.

♦ Ephesians 4:2-3 With all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love; 3Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.

Each church and all its members are obligated to pray constantly for the good and prosperity of all Christ’s churches everywhere, and to help forward everyone who comes into their district or calling, by the exercise of their gifts and graces.
♦ Ephesians 6:18 Praying always with all prayer and supplication in the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all perseverance and supplication for all saints;

♦ Psalm 122:6 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love thee.

It clearly follows that when churches are planted by the goodness of God they ought also to hold fellowship among themselves to promote peace, increasing love and mutual edification as and when they enjoy an opportunity to do so to their advantage.

♦ John 1:8-10 We therefore ought to receive such, that we might be fellowhelpers to the truth. 9 I wrote unto the church: but Diotrephes, who loveth to have the preeminence among them, receiveth us not. 10 Wherefore, if I come, I will remember his deeds which he doeth, prating against us with malicious words: and not content therewith, neither doth he himself receive the brethren, and forbiddeth them that would, and casteth them out of the church.

♦ Romans 16:1-2 I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is a servant of the church which is at Cenchre: 2 That ye receive her in the Lord, as becometh saints, and that ye assist her in whatsoever business she hath need of you: for she hath been a succourer of many, and of myself also.

In cases of difficulties or differences, either in matters of doctrine or administration, which concern the churches in general or any single church, and which affects their peace, union, and edification, or when any members of a church are injured because of any disciplinary proceedings not consistent with the Word and correct order, it is according to the mind of Christ, that many churches holding communion together do, through their appointed messengers meet to consider, and give their advice about the matter in dispute, and to report to all the churches concerned.
♦ Acts 15:2, 4, 6 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question. 4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. 6 And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter.

♦ Acts 15:22-23, 25 Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren: 23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia: 25 It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul,

However, when these messengers are assembled, they are not entrusted with any real church power, or with any jurisdiction over the churches involved in the problem. They cannot exercise any censure over any churches or persons, or impose their determination on the churches or their officers.

♦ 2 Corinthians 1:24 Not for that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy: for by faith ye stand.

♦ 1 John 4:1 Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world.

Chapter 27

The Communion of Saints

All saints who are united to Jesus Christ, their Head, by His Spirit, and by faith, although they are not by this made one person with Him, have fellowship in His graces, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory.
♦ 1 John 1:3 That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us: and truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ.

♦ John 1:16 And of his fullness have all we received, and grace for grace.

♦ Philippians 3:10 That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death;

♦ Romans 6:5-6 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection: 6 Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin.

Also, being united to one another in love, they have communion in each other’s gifts and graces,

♦ Ephesians 4:15-16 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ: 16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.

♦ 1 Corinthians 12:7 But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to every man to profit withal.

♦ 1 Corinthians 3:21-23 Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are yours; 22 Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come; all are yours; 23 And ye are Christ’s; and Christ is God’s.

and are obligated to the orderly performance of such public and private duties as lead to their mutual good, both in the inward and outward man.

♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:11 Wherefore comfort yourselves together, and edify one another, even as also ye do.

♦ 1 Thessalonians 5:14 Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly, comfort the feebleminded, support the weak, be patient toward all men.

♦ Romans 1:12 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.

♦ 1 John 3:17-18 But whoso hath this world’s good, and seeth his brother have need, and shutteth up his bowels of compassion from him, how dwelleth the love of God in him? 18 My little children, let us not love in word, neither in tongue; but in deed and in truth.

♦ Galatians 6:10 As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.

Saints, by their profession are bound to maintain a holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God and in performing such other spiritual services as advance their mutual edification.
♦ Hebrews 10:24-25 And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works: 25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching.

♦ Hebrews 3:12-13 Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. 13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.

They are also to give relief to each other in outward things according to their different needs and abilities to meet them.

♦ Acts 11:29-30 Then the disciples, every man according to his ability, determined to send relief unto the brethren which dwelt in Judaea: 30 Which also they did, and sent it to the elders by the hands of Barnabas and Saul.

This communion or fellowship, though chiefly exercised by saints in their immediate circle of fellow believers such as families,

♦ Ephesians 6:4 And, ye fathers, provoke not your children to wrath: but bring them up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord.

and churches,

♦ 1 Corinthians 12:14-27 For the body is not one member, but many. 15 If the foot shall say, Because I am not the hand, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? 16 And if the ear shall say, Because I am not the eye, I am not of the body; is it therefore not of the body? 17 If the whole body were an eye, where were the hearing? If the whole were hearing, where were the smelling? 18 But now hath God set the members every one of them in the body, as it hath pleased him. 19 And if they were all one member, where were the body? 20 But now are they many members, yet but one body. 21 And the eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee: nor again the head to the feet, I have no need of you. 22 Nay, much more those members of the body, which seem to be more feeble, are necessary: 23 And those members of the body, which we think to be less honourable, upon these we bestow more abundant honour; and our uncomely parts have more abundant comeliness. 24 For our comely parts have no need: but God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honour to that part which lacked: 25 That there should be no schism in the body; but that the members should have the same care one for another. 26 And whether one member suffer, all the members suffer with it; or one member be honoured, all the members rejoice with it. 27 Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular.

is also to be extended (according to the rule of the Gospel) to all the household of faith, as God gives the opportunity. This means all those who in every place call upon the name of the Lord Jesus, However, their communion with one another as saints does not take away or infringe the personal ownership which each man has of his goods and possessions.

♦ Acts 5:4 Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.

♦ Ephesians 4:28 Let him that stole steal no more: but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.

Chapter 28

Baptism and the Lord’s Supper

Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are ordinances of positive and sovereign institution, appointed by the Lord Jesus, the only lawgiver, to be continued in His Church to the end of the world.
♦ Matthew 28:19-20 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

♦ These holy appointments are to be administered only by those who are qualified and called to administer them, according to the commission of Christ.

♦ Matthew 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

♦ 1 Corinthians 4:1 Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

Chapter 29

Baptism

Baptism is an ordinance of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, to be to the person who is baptized – a sign of his fellowship with Christ in His death and resurrection; of his being engrafted into Christ;
♦ Romans 6:3-5 Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? 4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. 5 For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection:

♦ Colossians 2:12 Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.

♦ Galatians 3:27 For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.

of remission of sins;

♦ Mark 1:4 John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

♦ Acts 22:16 And now why tarriest thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.

and of that person’s giving up of himself to God, through Jesus Christ, to live and walk in newness of life.

♦ Romans 6:4 Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.

Those who actually profess repentance towards God, faith in, and obedience to, our Lord Jesus Christ, are the only proper subjects for this ordinance.
♦ Mark 16:16 He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.

♦ Acts 8:36 And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch said, See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized?

♦ Acts 8:37 And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

♦ Acts 2:41Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls.

♦ Acts 8:12 But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.

♦ Acts 18:8 And Crispus, the chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized.

The outward element to be used in this ordinance is water, in which the person is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.
♦ Matthew 28:19-20 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

♦ Acts 8:38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him.

Immersion – the dipping of the person in water – is necessary for the due administration of this ordinance.
♦ Matthew 3:16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:

♦ John 3:23 And John also was baptizing in Aenon near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.

Chapter 30

The Lord’s Supper

The Supper of the Lord Jesus was instituted by Him the same night on which He was betrayed to be observed in His churches until the end of the world for the perpetual remembrance, and showing forth of the sacrifice of Himself in His death. It was also instituted by Christ to confirm believers in all the benefits of His death;
♦ 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

for their spiritual nourishment and growth in Him; – for their further engagement in and commitment to all the duties which they owe to Him; – and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with Him and with their fellow believers.

♦ Matthew 26:26-27 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. 27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

In this ordinance Christ is not offered up to His Father, nor is there any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sin (of the living or the dead). There is only a memorial of that one offering up of Christ by Himself upon the cross once for
all,

♦ Hebrews 9:25-26 Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; 26 For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.

♦ Hebrews 9:28 So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

the memorial being accompanied by a spiritual oblation of all possible praise to God for Calvary.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.

♦ Matthew 26:26-27 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. 27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it;

Therefore, the popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominable, being injurious to Christ’s own sacrifice, which is the only propitiation for all the sins of the elect.

The Lord Jesus has, in this ordinance, appointed His ministers to pray and bless the elements of bread and wine (so setting them apart from a common to a holy use) and to take and break the bread, then to take the cup, and to give both to the communicants, also communicating themselves.
♦ 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

The denial of the cup to the people, the practices of worshipping the elements, lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, or reserving them for any pretended religious use, are all contrary to the nature of this ordinance, and to the institution of Christ.
♦ Matthew 26:26-28 And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. 27 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it; 28 For this is my blood of the new testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins.

♦ Matthew 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

♦ Exodus 20:4-5 Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: 5 Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

The outward elements in this ordinance which are correctly set apart and used as Christ ordained, so closely portray Him as crucified, that they are sometimes truly (but figuratively) referred to in terms of the things they represent, such as the body and blood of Christ.
♦ 1 Corinthians 11:27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.

However in substance and nature they still remain truly and only bread and wine as they were before.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:26-28 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come. 27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.

The doctrine commonly called transubstantiation, which maintains that a change occurs in the substance of the bread and wine into the substance of Christ’s body and blood, when consecrated by a priest or by any other way, is repugnant not only to Scripture
♦ Acts 3:21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.

♦ Luke 24:6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spake unto you when he was yet in Galilee,

♦ Luke 24:39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.

but even to common sense and reason. It overthrows the nature of the ordinance, and both has been and is the cause of a host of superstitions and of gross idolatries.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:24-25 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me.

Worthy receivers, outwardly taking the visible elements in this ordinance, also receive them inwardly and spiritually by faith, truly and in fact, but not carnally and corporally, and feed upon Christ crucified, and all the benefits of His death. The body and blood of Christ is not present corporally or carnally but it is spiritually present to the faith of believers in the ordinance, just as the elements are present to their outward senses.
♦ 1 Corinthians 10:16 The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:23-26 For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord’s death till he come.

All ignorant and ungodly persons who are unfit to enjoy communion with Christ are equally unworthy of the Lord’s Table, and therefore cannot without great sin against Him, take a share in these holy mysteries or be admitted to the Supper while they remain in that condition.
♦ 2 Corinthians 6:14-15 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? 15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?

Indeed those who receive (the elements) unworthily, are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord, eating and drinking judgement to themselves.

♦ 1 Corinthians 11:29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord’s body.

♦ Matthew 7:6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.

Chapter 31

Man’s State after

Death and the Resurrection

The bodies of men after death return to dust, and undergo corruption,
♦ Genesis 3:19 In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.

♦ Acts 13:36 For David, after he had served his own generation by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption:

but their souls, which neither die nor sleep, having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God Who gave them.

♦ Eccles 12:7 Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was: and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.

The souls of the righteous are then made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise where they are with Christ, and look upon the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies.

♦ Luke 23:43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:1 For we know that if our earthly house of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of God, an house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:6 Therefore we are always confident, knowing that, whilst we are at home in the body, we are absent from the Lord:

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:8 We are confident, I say, and willing rather to be absent from the body, and to be present with the Lord.

♦ Philippians 1:23 For I am in a strait betwixt two, having a desire to depart, and to be with Christ; which is far better:

♦ Hebrews 12:23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,

The souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torment and under darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day.

♦ Jude 1:6-7 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. 7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

♦ 1 Peter 3:19 By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison;

♦ Luke 16:23-24 And in hell he lift up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. 24 And he cried and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame.

The Scripture acknowledges no other place than these two for souls separated from their bodies.

At the last day, those of the saints who are still alive shall not sleep but shall be changed.
♦ 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.

♦ 1 Thessalonians 4:17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.

And all the dead shall be raised up with their own, same bodies, and none other,

♦ Job 19:26-27 And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God: 27 Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me.

although with different qualities, and these bodies shall be united again to their souls for ever.

♦ 1 Corinthians 15:42-43 So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption: 43 It is sown in dishonour; it is raised in glory: it is sown in weakness; it is raised in power:

The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonour. The bodies of the just shall, by His Spirit be raised to honour, and made conformable to His own glorious body.
♦ Acts 24:15 And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.

♦ John 5:28-29 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, 29 And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.

♦ Philippians 3:21 Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.

Chapter 32

The Last Judgment

God has appointed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness, by Jesus Christ,
♦ Acts 17:31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead.

♦ John 5:22 For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:

♦ John 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.

to Whom all power and judgment is given by the Father. In this day not only the apostate angels shall be judged,

♦ 1 Corinthians 6:3 Know ye not that we shall judge angels? how much more things that pertain to this life?

♦ Jude 1:6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.

but also all people who have lived upon the earth. They shall appear before the tribunal of Christ to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds, and to receive according to what they have done when in the body, whether good or evil.

♦ 2 Corinthians 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

♦ Eccles 12:14 For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether it be good, or whether it be evil.

♦ Matthew 12:36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.

♦ Romans 14:10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.

♦ Romans 14:12 So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.

♦ Matthew 25:32-46 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: 33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 34 Then shall the King say unto them on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: 35 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink: I was a stranger, and ye took me in: 36 Naked, and ye clothed me: I was sick, and ye visited me: I was in prison, and ye came unto me. 37 Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? 38 When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in? or naked, and clothed thee? 39 Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee? 40 And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me. 41 Then shall he say also unto them on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels: 42 For I was an hungred, and ye gave me no meat: I was thirsty, and ye gave me no drink: 43 I was a stranger, and ye took me not in: naked, and ye clothed me not: sick, and in prison, and ye visited me not. 44 Then shall they also answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee? 45 Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me. 46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

The end of God’s appointing this day is for the manifestation of the glory of His mercy in the eternal salvation of the elect, and also His justice, in the eternal damnation of the reprobate, who are wicked and disobedient.
♦ Romans 9:22-23 What if God, willing to shew his wrath, and to make his power known, endured with much longsuffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction: 23 And that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory,

Then shall the righteous go into everlasting life and receive that fullness of joy and glory with everlasting reward in the presence of the Lord. But the wicked, who know not God and obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast aside into everlasting torments,

♦ Matthew 5:21, 34 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgment: 34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne:

♦ 2 Timothy 4:8 Henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous judge, shall give me at that day: and not to me only, but unto all them also that love his appearing.

and punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power.

♦ Matthew 25:46 And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal.

♦ Mark 9:48 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.

♦ 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10 And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels, 8 In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: 9 Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power; 10 When he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to be admired in all them that believe (because our testimony among you was believed) in that day.

As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there will be a day of judgment, both to deter all men from sin
♦ 2 Corinthians 5:10-11 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad. 11 Knowing therefore the terror of the Lord, we persuade men; but we are made manifest unto God; and I trust also are made manifest in your consciences.

and to give greater consolation to the godly in their adversity,

2 Thessalonians 1:5-7Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which ye also suffer: 6 Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; 7 And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels,

so also He will have the date of that day kept unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and always be watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come.

♦ Mark 13:35-37 Watch ye therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cockcrowing, or in the morning: 36 Lest coming suddenly he find you sleeping. 37 And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch.

♦ Luke 12:35-40 Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning; 36 And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately. 37 Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them. 38 And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants. 39 And this know, that if the goodman of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through. 40 Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.

Also, so that men may be affected in such a way that they ever say, ‘Come Lord Jesus, come quickly!’ Amen.

♦ Revelation 22:20 He which testifieth these things saith, Surely I come quickly. Amen.

Even so, come, Lord Jesus.

The Baptist Confession of Faith of 1689

Study Guide by

Dr. Stanford E. Murrell

Chapters

The Holy Scriptures
God and the Holy Trinity
God’s Decree
Creation
Divine Providence
The Fall of Man, Sin and Punishment
God’s Covenant
Christ the Mediator
Free Will
Effectual Calling
Justification
Adoption
Sanctification
Saving Faith
Repentance and Salvation
Good Works
The Perseverance of the Saints
Assurance of Salvation
The Law of God
The Gospel and its Influence
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience
Worship and the Sabbath Day
Lawful Oaths and Vows
The Civil Magistrate
Marriage
The Church
The Communion of Saints
Baptism and the Lord’s Supper
Baptism
The Lord’s Supper
Man’s State after Death and the Resurrection
The Last Judgment
Chapter 1

The Holy Scriptures

In what three areas do the Scriptures serve as a sufficient, certain, and infalliblerule? Also, list three ways the goodness, wisdom, and power of God are manifested.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How many books are in the Old Testament canon of Scripture?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How many books are in the New Testament canon of Scripture?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who is the true Author of the Bible?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Why should the Apocrypha not be part of the canon of Scriptures?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the basis for believing and receiving the Scriptures as authoritative?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List eight reasons why the Bible can be trusted to be the Word of God.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List four areas in which the whole counsel of God is revealed.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What new revelation of the Spirit or traditions of men can be added to theScriptures?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the role of the Holy Spirit associated with understanding the Scriptures?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the one subject crystal clear in Scriptures?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List two original languages of the Scriptures.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the one infallible rule that must guide Scriptural interpretation?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

When the Word of God is proven to be in conflict with historic writings of greatmen and church councils, which writings should prevail?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 2 God and the Holy Trinity

List at least ten attributes of God.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How does God derive glory?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How does God subsist in His divine Being?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 3

God’s Decree

When and what has God decreed what shall come to pass?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the decrees of God based upon events being foreseen?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

For what purpose are some men and angels foreordained to eternal life whileothers are left in their sins?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the number and state of those who have been predestinated?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

State the divine motive for the decrees.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who are the elect of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Of what value is the doctrine of election?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 4

Creation

According to Scripture how many days did it take the Lord to creation create ormake the world?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe the creation of man in his original state.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What prohibition was placed on man.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 5

Divine Providence

To what extent is God involved in the affairs of the world He has created?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Explain the relationship between first and second causes.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is the sovereignty of God restricted by the laws of nature?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is God sovereign over sin?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Why does God permit sin in the saint?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How does God harden the heart of individuals?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What comfort can the Christian derive from the doctrine of divine providence?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 6

The Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment Thereof

How did man fall from a state of Innocency?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What happened to all of Adam’s posterity when he transgressed the law of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What evidence exists to show that Adam acted as a Federal Representative for allmen so that his transgression becomes the transgression of all?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How do people act according to nature?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Does salvation remove the propensity to sin?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 7

God’s Covenant

Can man do anything to earn or merit salvation and the favor of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What are the terms of the Covenant of Grace?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How is the Covenant of Grace revealed?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 8

Christ the Mediator

List seven roles associated with the Lord Jesus Christ.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is Jesus God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How is Jesus unique?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What office did Jesus most willing undertake on behalf of the elect?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List three accomplishments of Christ following His perfect obedience and sacrificeat Calvary.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How are believers saved in the Old Testament and New Testament era?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the two natures of Christ ever confused or co-mingled?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List seven gracious works Christ does on behalf of the elect.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Can Mary or any of the saints be considered a proper mediator between God andman?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Give three reasons why men need Jesus.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 9

Free Will

Describe the will of man.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Was the will of Adam confirmed in righteousness when he was created?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What ability did man, by his fall in Adam lose?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Explain what having a “freed” will means.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

When shall the will of man be perfectly good?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 10

Effectual Calling

What four specific factors are associated with the divine summons to salvation?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are souls effectually called to salvation based upon foreseen faith? Is the soulactive or passive in the act of salvation?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are children who die in infancy saved? Do babies go to heaven?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the heathen or those who have never heard the gospel saved?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 11

Justification

State what God does and does not do with sinners in the act of justification.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the instrument God uses to justify the soul?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

For whom did Christ die?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Does election save?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Once a person has entered into a state of justification is it possible to leave thatstate?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are believers in the Old Testament and New Testament era justified in the samemanner?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 12

Adoption

What has God promised to do for His justified ones?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 13

Sanctification

Explain what happens in the process of sanctification.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe the spiritual warfare that rages in the soul of the saint.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is there hope for the believer’s sanctification in the struggle for holiness?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 14

Saving Faith

How is faith imparted into the soul and how does it grow?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List eight expressions of a vital faith.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

Distinguish between the various kinds of faith.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 15

Repentance unto Life and Salvation

Can a person who has sinned grievously and lived long in sin still be saved?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What has God provided for in the covenant of grace?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List the various components of evangelical grace?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How long does repentance last?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is there any sin too great for the grace of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 16

Good Works

What constitutes a good work in the sight of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List seven manifestations of good works.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the relationship between human responsibility and divine enablement?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Can Christians gather up so many good works that they can be distributed toothers in the divine economy?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Why can men not merit the merits of Christ for salvation?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

In what manner and on what basis are the good works of the elect acceptable toGod?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Give three reasons why the works of the unregenerate are unacceptable to God.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 17

The Perseverance of the Saints

Provide four arguments for the certain perseverance of the saints teaching theyshall surely and finally be saved. Answer
________________________________________________________________________

Is the ground or root for the security of the believer in his free will?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List eight tragic results when a saint sins.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 18

The Assurance of Grace and Salvation

Distinguish between a true and false salvation.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List three foundations of faith giving assurance of salvation.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is it possible for a person to know if they are truly born of God?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

In what ways may the believer have assurance of salvation undermined?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 19

The Law of God

What agreement did God make with Adam and his posterity?Answer
________________________________________________________________________

Is the agreement that God made with Adam still binding upon men?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

In addition to the Moral Law what was God pleased to give to Israel?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the ceremonial and judicial laws of the Mosaic Law still binding uponbelievers today?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What is the purpose and usage of the moral law within the church.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are true believers under the moral law as a covenant of works?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the provisions of the moral law incompatible with the grace of the gospel?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 20

The Gospel and its Influence

Once the covenant of works was broken by sin and made unprofitable for life,what did God do?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

Can men come to knowledge of salvation by the works of creation or acts of divineprovidence?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Can the good works of men be united with gospel promises to form a basis for thesalvation of the soul?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What work of the Holy Spirit is essential to salvation in the soul of a person?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 21

Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience

List ten freedoms that belong to the believer.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How is the conscience set free and how may it be enslaved?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How may the conscience be violated and the gospel perverted?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 22

Worship and the Sabbath Day

Describe what the light of nature reveals about God and what man’s responsibilitytowards Him is.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who alone is to be worshipped?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe that form of praying which is acceptable to God.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

While much freedom is allowed in praying what two divine prohibitions have beenplaced upon this spiritual activity?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List various acts associated with religious worship of God.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How often and where is God to be worshipped?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe what the Christian Sabbath means.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How can the Christian Sabbath be kept holy?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 23 Lawful Oaths and Vows

What is a lawful oath?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is it wrong to invoke the name of God when taking an oath?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe the proper attitude of the one taking a religious oath.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What three factors should characterize an oath?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Provide examples of vows that Christians should not take.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 24

The Civil Magistrate

Has God ordained civil magistrates and if so, what role has He provided them?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Should Christians be directly involved in the political affairs of a nation?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List two responsibilities Christians have towards magistrates.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 25

Marriage

What boundaries has God placed on the institution of marriage?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List three reasons why God has ordained marriage.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Whom may a Christian not marry?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What does God have to say about incestuous relationships?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 26 The Church

Describe the invisible church.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Who may be called visible saints?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Will the true church ever become apostate?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Why is the Pope of Rome believed by many to be an expression of antichrist?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is church membership in a local assembly important?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What obligation to one another do church members have?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

List two functions that characterize the local assembly.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What are the proper church leaders and how are they to be placed in positions ofauthority?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Describe the manner in which church leaders are to be set aside for spiritualleadership.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

What pastoral duties are to be performed and what is to be the relationship of apastor with his people?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who may preach the Word?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is membership in a local assembly optional?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is it right for a person to withdraw themselves from the local assembly becauseof a personal offense?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Should local churches enter into fellowships with one another?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

When local churches of like mind and faith converse with one another what is tobe the nature of their fellowship?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 27

The Communion of Saints

As a general principle do believers have an obligation to other believers?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Specifically what are some obligations believers have toward one another?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 28 Baptist and of the Lord’s Supper

What are two biblical ordinances appointed by Christ?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who should administer the holy ordinances?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 29 Of Baptism

What does baptism signify?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Who should be allowed to partake of the biblical ordinances?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Give the proper baptismal formula.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Identify the proper mode of baptism.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 30

The Lord’s Supper

List five reasons why did Christ institute the Last Supper.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Is Christ sacrificed afresh when the Communion meal is observed?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How is the Lord’s Supper to be administered and to whom?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Should one or both of the elements be denied to God’s people?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Are the elements of the Lord’s Supper literally transformed into His body andblood? Answer
________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Why is the doctrine of transubstantiation unacceptable?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

How is Christ remembered and received through observance of the Last Supper?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Should some people not partake of the Lord’s Supper?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Chapter 31

The State of Man after Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead

Where does the soul of the righteous and the soul of the wicked go after death?Answer
________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Can the Christian look forward to a bodily resurrection from the dead?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

In the resurrection from the dead what happens to the bodies of the just and theunjust?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 32 The Last Judgment

Describe what will happen at the last judgment.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Following the Last Judgment what shall happen to the righteous and to thewicked?
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

Contrast the attitude of the righteous with the unrighteous in regard to the LastJudgment.
Answer

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

The Baptist Confession of Faith of 1689

Leader’s Guide

Answers to the Study Material

With

Questions for Group Discussion

By

Dr. Stanford E. Murrell

The Holy Scriptures
God and the Holy Trinity
God’s Decree
Creation
Divine Providence
The Fall of Man, Sin and Punishment
God’s Covenant
Christ the Mediator
Free Will
Effectual Calling
Justification
Adoption
Sanctification
Saving Faith
Repentance and Salvation
Good Works
The Perseverance of the Saints
Assurance of Salvation
The Law of God
The Gospel and its Influence
Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience
Worship and the Sabbath Day
Lawful Oaths and Vows
The Civil Magistrate
Marriage
The Church
The Communion of Saints
Baptism and the Lord’s Supper
Baptism
The Lord’s Supper
Man’s State after Death and the Resurrection
The Last Judgment
Chapter 1

The Holy Scriptures

In what three areas do the Scriptures serve as a sufficient, certain, and infallible rule? Also, list three ways the goodness, wisdom, and power of God are manifested. Answer
Saving faith
Faith
Obedience
Answer

The light of nature
The works of creation
The providence of God
How many books are in the Old Testament canon of Scripture?
Answer 39

How many books are in the New Testament canon of Scripture?

Answer 27

Who is the true Author of the Bible?

Answer God the Hold Spirit

Why should the Apocrypha not be part of the canon of Scriptures?
Answer The books in the Apocrypha are not of divine inspiration and so are of no authority to the Church.

What is the basis for believing and receiving the Scriptures as authoritative? Answer The authority of the Holy Scripture depends wholly upon God its Author (Who is Truth itself). Therefore it is to be received because it is the Word of God.
List eight reasons why the Bible can be trusted to be the Word of God.
Answer

The testimony of the Church
The ultimate origin of the Scriptures
The power of biblical doctrines to change lives
The loveliness of the style of writing
The essential unity of the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation
The expressed purpose-the glory of God
The revelation of the way of salvation
The fact that the Scriptures are without error
List four areas in which the whole counsel of God is revealed.
Answer

What is necessary for the Lord’s glory
What is essential for man’s salvation
The way of faith
The way of temporal and eternal life
What new revelation of the Spirit or traditions of men can be added to theScriptures?
Answer Nothing.

What is the role of the Holy Spirit associated with understanding the Scriptures? Answer The Holy Spirit illuminates the mind to comprehend spiritual truth.

What is the one subject crystal clear in Scriptures?
Answer. Those things that are necessary to be known, believed and observed for salvation.

List two original languages of the Scriptures.Answer Hebrew and Greek.
What is the one infallible rule that must guide Scriptural interpretation?Answer. Scripture must be allowed to interpret itself.
When the Word of God is proven to be in conflict with historic writings of greatmen and church councils, which writings should prevail?
Answer It is in the sentence of Scripture we are to rest, for it is in Scripture, delivered by the Spirit, that our faith is finally resolved.

Questions for Group Discussion

Is the Bible without error in all matters or just when it addresses spiritual issues?
Is it important to believe that the Scriptures contain a completed revelation of God’s words to men? Explain.
How does a historic belief in progressive revelation factor into the concept of a completed canon of Scripture?
What should the response of the church be to those who believe in continual revelation through dreams, visions, and voices?
Which position best reflects your thoughts in matters of faith and practice.
♦ The Elastic View: What Scripture does not specifically prohibit is permissible. ♦ The Strict View: Only what is commanded in the Scriptures is permissible.

Does the temptation come to some churches to exalt a confession of faith over theScriptures? How is this temptation to be handled?
Chapter 2 God and the Holy Trinity

List at least ten attributes of God. Answer
Infinite in being and perfections
Incomprehensible ! A most pure spirit
Invisible
Spiritual (without bodily parts or passion)
Immortal
Immutable
Immense
Eternal
Almighty
Holy ! Wise
Fee
Loving
Gracious
Merciful
Righteous ! Forgiving
Harsh in judgment
How does God derive glory?
Answer God manifests His own glory for He alone is the fountain of all being; from Whom, through Whom, and to Whom all things exist and move.

How does God subsist in His divine Being?
Answer. God subsistence as Father, the Word (or Son), and the Holy Spirit.

Questions for Group Discussion

What is meant by the word ‘attribute’?
Does the concept of the Trinity make sense? Is it logical?
Did God create man from some sort of Divine necessity? If so what was that necessity?
Chapter 3

God’s Decree

When and what has God decreed what shall come to pass?
Answer. God has decreed in Himself from all eternity, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely and unchangeably, all things which shall ever come to pass.

Are the decrees of God based upon events being foreseen?
Answer. Although God knows everything that may or can come to pass under all imaginable conditions, yet He has not decreed anything because He foresaw it in the future, or because it would come to pass under certain conditions.

For what purpose are some men and angels foreordained to eternal life whileothers are left in their sins?
Answer God will be praised for His mercy or for His justice.

What is the number and state of those who have been predestinated?
Answer The number of those foreordained is certain and definite; it cannot be either increased or diminished.

State the divine motive for the decrees.
Answer. God does all things according to His own eternal and immutable purpose and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will.

Who are the elect of God?
Answer. The elect are those who have been redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved.

Of what value is the doctrine of election?
Answer This doctrine provides a basis for praise, reverence, and admiration of God, while producing holy humility.

Questions for Group Discussion

How can God be the creator of all things and not be the author of or responsible for sin?
How does God know what is to be known?
Why is man held responsible for anything if all things have been decreed?
Chapter 4

Creation

According to Scripture how many days did it take the Lord to creation create ormake the world?
Answer In the space of six days God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit created all things, and all very good.

Describe the creation of man in his original state.
Answer. God created both Adam and Eve with reason and immortal souls rendering them fit to live that life for Him for which they were created; being made in His image in knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness.

What prohibition was placed on man.
Answer. With the law of God being written on their hearts, Adam and Eve were commanded not to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil.

Questions for Group Discussion

Can a person be a Christian and not believe in creationism?
What should the Christian do when science and the Bible come into conflict?
Is it wrong to try to harmonize science and Scripture reflected in the concept of theistic evolution (the belief that God used evolution to bring man into existence)?
Was Adam and Eve created with the capacity to sin? If so, “Why”? If not, “How were they able to sin”?
Chapter 5

Divine Providence

To what extent is God involved in the affairs of the world He has created?Answer God the good Creator of all things, in His infinite power and wisdom, upholds, directs, disposes and governs all creatures and things, from the greatest to the least.
Explain the relationship between first and second causes.
Answer God is the first cause of all things that come to pass; nevertheless, through acts of providence works through secondary causes such as the laws of nature and the will of man.

Is the sovereignty of God restricted by the laws of nature?
Answer No. While God, in His ordinary providence makes use of means, He is free to work apart from them.

Is God sovereign over sin?
Answer. God accepts ultimate responsibility for sin. Sin did not come into existence by a bare permission but was ordered and is governed. Nevertheless, sinful acts proceed from the creature and not from God.

Why does God permit sin in the saint?
Answer. Sometimes God permits sin to be present in the saint in order to chastise them for the sins which they have committed, or to show them the hidden strength of corruption and deceitfulness still in their hearts, so that they may be humbled and aroused to a more close and constant dependence upon Himself for their support, and that they may be made more watchful against future occasions of sin

How does God harden the heart of individuals?
Answer God is free to withhold His grace from men by which they might have been enlightened in their understanding and affected in their hearts,

What comfort can the Christian derive from the doctrine of divine providence?Answer. In a very special way God governs all things to the good of His church.
Questions for Group Discussion

If God does “uphold, direct, dispose, and govern all creatures and things” how a person be responsible for anything that is done?
How does the biblical doctrine of God’s divine providence differ from fatalism?
How can good come out of evil?
Can you think of some examples of God’s divine providence in your own life?
Chapter 6

The Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment Thereof

How did man fall from a state of Innocency?
Answer. Satan using the subtlety of the serpent to subdue Eve, seduced Adam by her, and he, without any compulsion, willfully transgressed the law of their creation and the command given to them by eating the forbidden fruit.

What happened to all of Adam’s posterity when he transgressed the law of God?Answer. By the sin of Adam death came upon all. All men are now wholly defiled in all the faculties and parts of soul and body.
What evidence exists to show that Adam acted as a Federal Representative for allmen so that his transgression becomes the transgression of all?
Answer. By God’s appointment, Adam did stand in the stead of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed, and their corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation as per Romans 5:12: “Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned”.

How do people act according to nature?
Answer While it is not a flattering view of man’s nature the truth is that individuals are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good, and wholly inclined to all evil from birth.

Does salvation remove the propensity to sin?
Answer. Although the soul is pardoned and sin as a ruling principle is mortified or put to death through Christ, yet the corrupt nature and all its motions are still present until the heart is glorified.

Questions for Group Discussion

What are some ways that Satan tempts people to sin?
Is the concept of Adam being a Federal Representative of the human race valid?
Is the doctrine of original sin true? Are people born sinners and so they sin or, do people sin and become sinners?
Should horrible sins found in professing Christians be a surprise? Explain.
Chapter 7

God’s Covenant

Can man do anything to earn or merit salvation and the favor of God?
Answer. Because the distance between God and man is so great there is nothing which man can do to attain the reward of life.

What are the terms of the Covenant of Grace?
Answer. In this covenant He freely offers to sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring from them faith in Him that they may be saved, and promising to give to all who are appointed to eternal life His Holy Spirit to make them willing and able to believe.

How is the Covenant of Grace revealed?
Answer This covenant is revealed through the Gospel; first of all to Adam in the promise of salvation by the seed of the woman, and afterwards by further steps until the full revelation of it became complete in the New Testament.

Questions for Group Discussion

Is there a Covenant of Grace? If so, when was it made.
Do you understand the basic provisions of the covenants of the Scriptures?
Chapter 8

Christ the Mediator

List seven roles associated with the Lord Jesus Christ. Answer
Prophet
Priest
King
Head of Church
Saviour of the Church
Heir of all things ! Judge of the world
Is Jesus God?
Answer. Jesus is very God of very God-or else men are idolaters. Faith affirms what the Scriptures reveal: Jesus is the Son the second person in the Holy Trinity, being true and eternal God, the brightness of the Father’s glory, of the same substance and equal with Him; Who made the world, and Who upholds and governs all things which He has made,

How is Jesus unique?
Answer. Jesus is unique in that He is both God and man. His human nature, being united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit above measure,

What office did Jesus most willing undertake on behalf of the elect?
Answer. Being made under the law, Jesus did perfectly fulfill it, and underwent the punishment due to others so that He might be raised from the dead to be seated in a heavenly place where he acts as a Mediator making intercession for His own.

List three accomplishments of Christ following His perfect obedience and sacrificeat Calvary.
Answer.

Christ has satisfied the justice of God
Christ has procured reconciliation for His people
Christ has purchased an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom for all whom the Father has given to Him
How are believers saved in the Old Testament and New Testament era?Answer All who shall ever be saved will be saved through faith in Christ. Although the price of redemption was not actually paid by Christ until after His incarnation yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefit arising from His payment were communicated to the elect in all ages from the beginning of the world through those promises, types, and sacrifices in which He was revealed and signified as the seed which should bruise the serpent’s head,
Are the two natures of Christ ever confused or co-mingled?
Answer No. Christ always acts in an appropriate and consistent manner, each nature doing that which is proper to itself.

List seven gracious works Christ does on behalf of the elect.
Answer. He certainly and effectually applies and communicates the work of redemption to the souls of those who are the heirs of salvation He makes intercession for the elect He unites the elect to Himself by His Spirit,

He reveals to the in the Word and by the Word the mystery of salvation
He persuades the elect to believe and obey the gospel
He governs the hearts of the elect by His Word and Spirit
He overcome all their enemies by His almighty power and wisdom
Can Mary or any of the saints be considered a proper mediator between God and man?
Answer No. The office of Mediator between God and man is proper only to Christ 1 Timothy 2:5 “For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”

10, Give three reasons why men need Jesus.

Answer

Because of ignorance men need the Lord’s prophetic office to reveal the way of truth and life.
Because of alienation from God men need the priestly office of Christ to reconcile and present them to God as acceptable.
Because of an utter inability to return to God men need the Lord’s kingly office to convince, subdue, draw, uphold, deliver, and preserve until the heavenly kingdom is reached.
Questions for Group Discussion

How many of the following words do you recognize and can define?
Redemption
Called
Glorification
Sanctification
Intercession
Reconciliation
2 Does it matter whether or not Jesus Christ is very God of very God? What is to be said to those who believe that Christ was only a good man or a great moral teacher?

How can Jesus be both God and man?
What methods of salvation do individuals seek today in order to please God and arrive in heaven?
Is it fair and just to teach that Christ died to redeem the elect?
Chapter 9

Free Will

Describe the will of man.
Answer. God has endowed the will of man with the power to choose and to act upon his choice. This free will is neither forced nor destined by any necessity of nature to do good or evil.

Was the will of Adam confirmed in righteousness when he was created?Answer. No. Though Adam was created in a state of innocency with freedom and power to will and to do that which was good and well pleasing to God, he was able to change by choice and so fall from grace to groaning.
What ability did man, by his fall in Adam lose?
Answer Man, by his fall into a state of sin, completely lost all ability of will to perform any of the spiritual good which accompanies salvation.

Explain what having a “freed” will means.
Answer When God converts a sinner, and translates him into a state of grace, He frees him from his natural bondage to sin, and by grace alone enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good.

When shall the will of man be perfectly good?
Answer. The will of man will only be made perfectly and immutable [unchangeable] free to will good alone in the state of glory.

Questions for Group Discussion

Does man have a free will? What is the evidence?
Are individuals saved against their wills?
Are individuals lost contrary to their wills?
Chapter 10

Effectual Calling

What four specific factors are associated with the divine summons to salvation?
Answer

God enlightens the mind spiritually and savingly to understand the doctrines of grace.
God takes away the natural heart of stone and gives a heart of flesh.
God renews the will and by His almighty power implants a desire to pursue that which is good.
God effectually draws the soul to His Son, the Saviour, Jesus Christ,
Are souls effectually called to salvation based upon foreseen faith? Is the soul active or passive in the act of salvation?
Answer The effectual call to salvation is of God’s free and special grace alone and is not dependent upon foreseen in man. Ephesians 2:8 “For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God.”

Answer Because man is without spiritual power and is by nature dead in sins and trespasses until quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit the soul is wholly passive in the matter of effectual calling.

Are children who die in infancy saved? Do babies go to heaven?
Answer Infants dying in infancy are regenerated and saved by Christ through the Spirit. Mark 10:14 “But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.”

Are the heathen or those who have never heard the gospel saved?
Answer Unless the Father effectually draws a person, they will not and cannot truly come to Christ and therefore cannot be saved.

Questions for Group Discussion

How did you react to the biblical doctrine of predestination when you first heard and understood this biblical teaching?
What concerns, if any, linger in your mind about the doctrine of predestination and election?
Chapter 11

Justification

State what God does and does not do with sinners in the act of justification.
Answer. What God does not do in the justification of the soul? ! God does not infuse righteousness into the ungodly.

God does not recognize any form of human righteousness-be it faith, believing, or any other act of evangelical obedience.
Answer What God does do in the justification of the soul.

God pardons the sins of the ungodly, not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone.
God imputes to the ungodly Christ’s active obedience to the whole law and His passive obedience in death.
God graciously provides the gift of faith at the point of gospel hearing so that the soul can be saved and justified or declared righteous in His sight.
What is the instrument God uses to justify the soul?
Answer Faith receiving and resting on Christ and His righteousness is the sole instrument of justification.

For whom did Christ die?
Answer Christ, by His obedience and death, fully discharged the debt of all those who are to be the heirs of salvation. He died for the elect.

Does election save?
Answer. No. Election is unto salvation. The elect are not justified personally until the Holy Spirit actually applies the redemptive work of Christ to the heart.

Once a person has entered into a state of justification is it possible to leave thatstate?
Answer No. However, the Christian may sin and be placed under the Father’s displeasure. Fellowship can only be restored by humility, confession of sins, repentance, and renewal of faith.

Are believers in the Old Testament and New Testament era justified in the samemanner?
Answer Believers in the Old Testament economy and the New Testament economy are justified in the same way-by grace through faith alone. “So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham” (Gal. 3:9).

Questions for Group Discussion

Can you explain how a person is justified before God?
What place do good works have in the life of a Christian?
Chapter 12

Adoption

What has God promised to do for His justified ones? Answer
God will make the elect partakers of the grace of adoption.
God will recognize the elect as children with specific liberties and privileges ! God will give the elect His name.
God will give the elect the Spirit of adoption.
God will welcome the elect before the throne of grace with boldness and enjoy hearing them cry, ‘Abba, Father!’.
God will pity or love the elect.
God will protect the elect from harm.
God will provided for the elect according to His sovereign power and mercy.
God will chasten the elect in love.
God will never forsake or cast off the elect.
God will seal the elect until the day of redemption.
God will give the elect a spiritual in heritance and the promise of an everlasting salvation.
Questions for Group Discussion

Understanding the biblical doctrine of adoption, what is your reaction?
The believer is able to cry “Abba, Father”. Share how this makes you feel.
Is it wrong to appeal to the religious affections of people when presenting the gospel or the doctrines of grace?
Chapter 13

Sanctification

Explain what happens in the process of sanctification.
Answer Through the ministry of the Word and the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit the dominion of sin is destroyed as the believer is conformed more and more into the image of Christ.

Describe the spiritual warfare that rages in the soul of the saint.
Answer. Because of the lingering presence of sinful corruption in the will, emotions, and intellect of the saint there arises a continual and irreconcilable warfare whereby the flesh is hostile to the things of the Spirit and the Spirit is against the flesh.

Is there hope for the believer’s sanctification in the struggle for holiness?Answer Though the spiritual warfare between the flesh and the Holy Spirit in the life of the believer is real and intense, the Christian has great confidence that there will be grow in grace and a perfecting of holiness in the fear of God.
Questions for Group Discussion

Discuss the following observation. Once people asked, “How close can I get to heaven and still
How can a person be holy without becoming legalistic?
Some Christians believe in the concept of being entirely sanctified so that they no longer sin. is that possible?
Chapter 14

Saving Faith

How is faith imparted into the soul and how does it grow?
Answer. Faith is a gift of God’s grace imparted by the Holy Spirit. Faith grows by means of gospel obedience in the act of baptism, partaking of the Lord’s supper, and exercising the privilege of prayer.

List eight expressions of a vital faith.
Answer

Faith believes the Word of God
Faith believes in God
Faith embraces the person and work of Jesus Christ
Faith leads to gospel obedience
Faith trembles at Scriptural warnings of judgment to come
Faith accepts Christ as Saviour
Faith rests upon Christ alone as the only means of salvation
Faith relies upon Christ for justification, sanctification, and eternal life.
Distinguish between the various kinds of faith.
Answer

Common grace is extended to believers and non believers alike and is reflected in the mercies of God in providing sunshine and rain, food and clothing etc
Spurious or temporary faith is that which embraces the gospel but turns away from the Lord
Saving grace trusts in Christ for salvation
Sustaining grace may be weak or strong as it moves the believer by degrees towards Christian maturity
Questions for Group Discussion

In light of the Health and Wealth Gospel are there any limits to faith?
How can faith be abused?
Chapter 15

Repentance unto Life and Salvation

Can a person who has sinned grievously and lived long in sin still be saved?
Answer Yes. Though a person may have lived in sin having served various lusts and pleasures, God can still gives repentance which leads to life, through an effectual call.

What has God provided for in the covenant of grace?
Answer. In the covenant of grace God has provided that believers who have previously grievously sinned may yet be saved.

List the various components of evangelical grace?Answer
The soul is made sensible of the manifold evils of sin
The soul is filled with godly sorrow
Sin is detested
There is a measure of self-abhorrence for sins committed
Prayer is offered for forgiveness and grace
There is a renewed endeavor by the Spirit in gospel obedience
How long does repentance last?
Answer. Repentance is to be continued through the course of our lives.

Is there any sin too great for the grace of God?
Answer. Such is the provision that God has made through Christ in the covenant of grace there is no sin so great that it shall bring judgment on them that repent.

Questions for Group Discussion

It has been said that most people live lives of quiet desperation. What can be said to Christians who struggle with sin?
How would you counsel a believer with an addiction?
Chapter 16

Good Works

What constitutes a good work in the sight of God?
Answer. Good works are only those works that God has commanded in His Holy Word.

List seven manifestations of good works.Answer
By good works believers display faith
By good works believers express thankfulness
By good works assurance of salvation is enhanced
By good works believers edify other saints
By good works believers gain a godly reputation
By good works believes Silence critics
By good works believers glorify God
What is the relationship between human responsibility and divine enablement?
Answer. The ability to perform good works acceptable to God is given by the Holy Spirit. Nevertheless, the believer must be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them.

Can Christians gather up so many good works that they can be distributed toothers in the divine economy?
Answer The unbiblical doctrine of supererogation whereby good works can be produced for distribution finds no basis in Scripture.

Why can men not merit the merits of Christ for salvation?
Answer. Because of the great disproportion between the good works of men and the glory to come, and because of the infinite distance which is between men and God the merits of Christ cannot be earned or deserved.

In what manner and on what basis are the good works of the elect acceptable toGod?
Answer. As a basis for salvation the good works of men are never accepted. However, as an expression of gospel obedience and on the basis of the finished work of Christ, good works are pleasing to the Father.

Give three reasons why the works of the unregenerate are unacceptable to God.
Answer

The works of the unregenerate proceed from a heart not purified by faith
The works of the unregenerate are not performed in accordance with the Scriptures
The works of the unregenerate do not have the glory of God as their proper end
Questions for Group Discussion

Why is it so difficult for people to accept the concept of a salvation of free grace apart from meritorious works?
Should believers unite with and financially support organizations that promote good works as a social action?
Chapter 17

The Perseverance of the Saints

Provide four arguments for the certain perseverance of the saints teaching they shall surely and finally be saved. Answer
Because the gifts and calling of God are without repentance the Father will continue to beget and nourish in the elect faith, repentance, love, joy, hope, and all the graces of the spirit which lead to immortality.
The elect are fastened by faith to a sure foundation and rock that cannot be moved, and that Rock is Jesus.
The elect are a purchased possession. The precious blood of Christ shall not be shed in vain.
The elect are engraved upon the palms of Christ hands, and their names have been written in His Book of Life from all eternity.
Is the ground or root for the security of the believer in his free will?
Answer The certainty of the believer’s final salvation is not rooted in man’s free will but in the God’s free grace confirmed in the covenant of grace.

Because the decree of election is immutable [not subject to change] the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because the love of God the Father is unchangeable the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because the work of redemption by Christ is efficacious [effective] the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because there is a vital union between Christ and His people the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because God has swore with an oath to keep His own the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because of the abiding presence of the Holy Spirit the believer’s salvation is certain.
Because of the spiritual seed of God that resides in ever soul born from above the believer’s salvation is certain.
List eight tragic results when a saint sins. Answer.
When a Christian sins they neglect the means of preservation
When a Christian sins they incur God’s displeasure
When a Christian sins they grieve the Holy Spirit
When a Christian sins they forfeit spiritual comfort
When a Christian sins their hearts are hardened
When a Christian sins their conscience is wounded
When a Christian sins they hurt and scandalize others
When a Christian sins they bring temporal judgment upon themselves
Questions for Group Discussion

Is there better language to use “once saved, always saved’ to communicate the doctrine of the security of the believer?
Does the doctrine of the security of the believer encourage sin or holiness?
What are the doctrinal and practical implication are there f the perseverance of the saints is set rejected?
Chapter 18

The Assurance of Grace and Salvation

Distinguish between a true and false salvation.
Answer It is possible for men to deceive themselves with false hopes and carnal presumptions of being in favor with God and in a state of salvation. However, true salvation believes in the Lord Jesus, loves Him in sincerity, and endeavors to walk in all good conscience before Him.

List three foundations of faith giving assurance of salvation.Answer
Salvation is founded on the blood and righteousness of Christ revealed in the Gospel.
Salvation is founded upon the inward evidence of those graces of the Spirit in connection with definite promises made in the Scriptures.
Salvation is founded on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption who witnesses with our spirits that we are the children of God. God uses the experience of assurance to keep the heart of the believer both humble and holy.
Is it possible for a person to know if they are truly born of God?
Answer. Enabled by the Spirit to know for certain if the soul has been converted the believer has a responsibility to make their calling and election sure.

In what ways may the believer have assurance of salvation undermined?Answer
Assurance of salvation may be undermined by negligence of spiritual graces
Assurance of salvation may be undermined by serious sins, which wounds the conscience and grieves the Spirit
Assurance of salvation may be undermined by succumbing to a sudden strong temptation
Assurance of salvation maybe undermined by God withdrawing His presence so that the light of His countenance is gone leaving the soul to walk in darkness
Questions for Group Discussion

Do some people have false assurance of salvation? Why?
Does it speak of arrogance to articulate one’s assurance of salvation?
Chapter 19

The Law of God

What agreement did God make with Adam and his posterity?
Answer While God gave Adam a law of universal obedience that was written in his heart, He also gave Adam very specific instruction about not eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. This bound Adam and all his descendants to personal, total, exact, and perpetual obedience. Adam was promised life upon the fulfilling of the law, and threatened with death upon the breach of it.

Is the agreement that God made with Adam still binding upon men?
Answer The same law that was first written in the heart of man continues to be a perfect rule of righteousness after the Fall.

In addition to the Moral Law what was God pleased to give to Israel?
Answer Besides the Moral Law embodied in the Ten Commandments, God was pleased to give the people of Israel ceremonial laws containing several typical ordinances anticipating the person and work of Christ.

Are the ceremonial and judicial laws of the Mosaic Law still binding uponbelievers today?
Answer The ceremonial and judicial laws have expired and are no longer binding upon the people of God except as they are embodied in the commandment to love one another. Romans 13:8-9 “Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. 9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself.”

What is the purpose and usage of the moral law within the church.
Answer The moral law is binding upon believers as an expression of gospel obedience. Christ did not dissolve the moral law but strengthened it.

Are true believers under the moral law as a covenant of works?
Answer Believers are not under the moral law as a covenant of works or else no one would ever be saved. However, the moral law does remain as a rule of life, informing the believer of the will of God, exposes sin, and is designed to lead to conviction and repentance.

Are the provisions of the moral law incompatible with the grace of the gospel?
Answer The moral law is not contrary to the grace of the Gospel but complies with it. The Spirit of Christ subdues sin and then enables the will of the Christian to freely and cheerfully do that which is revealed and required by the law.

Questions for Group Discussion

Is there a better term than “moral law” for what was written in Adam’s heart at creation? Is the term valid?
Many religious words and concepts have been introduced into the Christian vocabulary that are not derived from the Scriptures (i.e. “rapture”, “trinity”, “moral law”, “covenant of works” etc.). What should be said about this practice?
Chapter 20

The Gospel and its Influence

Once the covenant of works was broken by sin and made unprofitable for life,what did God do?
Answer. Once the covenant of works was violated God was pleased to give forth the promise of Christ as the means of calling the elect, and begetting in them faith and repentance.

Can men come to knowledge of salvation by the works of creation or acts of divineprovidence?
Answer The gospel setting forth the promise of Christ and salvation by Him is revealed only in the Word of God.

Can the good works of men be united with gospel promises to form a basis for thesalvation of the soul?
Answer The gospel is not something added to the good works of men to form a synergism salvation, nor does the gospel improve men’s natural abilities. Rather, the revelation of the gospel of salvation, given in different ways in different times, reflects the will of God that all men in all ages believe in Jesus Christ as He is revealed.

What work of the Holy Spirit is essential to salvation in the soul of a person?Answer Because men are dead in trespasses and sin they must be quickened or regenerated by the sovereign and effectual work of the Spirit upon the whole soul (will, emotions, intellect) so that a new spiritual life is produced. Without this special work of the Spirit there is no other means of salvation.
Questions for Group Discussion

If individuals are elected to salvation, predestined, and called, why send missionaries to foreign fields and why evangelize?
Is it wrong to tell people while engaged in soul winning activity that “God loves you and has a wonderful plan for your life?”
Does the gospel have power to transform lives and society? What is the evidence?
Chapter 21

Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience

List ten freedoms that belong to the believer.
Answer

The Christian is free from the guilt of sin
The Christian is free from the condemning wrath of God
The Christian is free from the rigor and curse of the law
The Christian is free form bondage to this present evil world
The Christian is free from bondage to Satan
The Christian is free from the dominion of sin
The Christian is free from the evil of afflictions
The Christian is free from the fear and sting of death
The Christian is free from the power of the grave
The Christian is free from fear of an everlasting damnation
How is the conscience set free and how may it be enslaved?
Answer God alone is the Lord of the conscience. He sets it free from all doctrines and commandments of men that are in any respect contrary to His Word, or not contained in it. The conscience can be enslaved when organized religion requires implicit faith and an absolute and blind obedience.

How may the conscience be violated and the gospel perverted?
Answer The conscience is perverted when known sin is willingly practiced and specific lust patterns are cherished.

Questions for Group Discussion

In the quest to protect individual liberties how is the church to teach an essential unity of believers and corporate responsibilities?
How can a person be holy without becoming legalistic?
What should be some standards for believers?
Chapter 22

Worship and the Sabbath Day

Describe what the light of nature reveals about God and what man’s responsibility towards Him is. Answer
There is a God
God is sovereign over all
God is just and does good unto all
God is to be feared, loved, and praised
God is to be called upon
God is to be trusted
God is to be served with sincerity and in earnest
Who alone is to be worshipped?
Answer. Worship is to be given to God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and to Him alone.

Describe that form of praying which is acceptable to God.
Answer. Acceptable prayer must be made in the name of the Son, by the help of the Spirit, and according to the Lord’s will. It must be made with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance. In like manner corporate prayer must be made in a known language.

While much freedom is allowed in praying what two divine prohibitions have beenplaced upon this spiritual activity?
Answer Prayer is not to be offered for the dead or to the dead, nor may prayer be offered on behalf of those known to have sinned the sin unto death.

List various acts associated with religious worship of God.Answer
The reading of the Scriptures
The preaching of the gospel
The listening of the Word preached
Teaching and admonishing one another in psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs ! The administration of baptism and reception the Lord’s supper
How often and where is God to be worshipped? Answer
God is to be worshipped everywhere in spirit and in truth
God is to be worshipped in personal devotions
God is to be worshipped in private families daily ! God is to be worshipped in public assemblies
Describe what the Christian Sabbath means.
Answer. From the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ God has appointed a proper time of worship. From the resurrection of Christ the day has been the first day of the week called the Lord’s Day.

How can the Christian Sabbath be kept holy?
Answer. The Sabbath is kept holy to the Lord by preparing the heart for worship, by resting from normal worldly employment and recreations, and by giving oneself to public and private acts of worship for the whole time while carrying out duties of necessity and mercy.

Questions for Group Discussion

Do you believe that there is a special “sacred time” binding upon all believers for worship?
Is the keeping of a “Sabbath” binding upon believers since the days of the apostles?
Chapter 23 Lawful Oaths and Vows

What is a lawful oath?
Answer A lawful oath is an act of religious worship in which the person swearing in truth, righteousness, and judgment, solemnly calls God to witness what he swears, and to judge him according to the truth or falsity of it.

Is it wrong to invoke the name of God when taking an oath?
Answer The only Scripture prohibition on taking an oath invoking God’s name is that the truth be told lest God involved in a lie and His name taken in vain.

Describe the proper attitude of the one taking a religious oath.
Answer. Whoever takes an oath sanctioned by the Word of God is bound to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act, and affirm or confess to nothing except that which he knows to be true.

What three factors should characterize an oath?Answer
An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words
An oath is to be taken without equivocation
An oath is to be taken without mental reservation
Provide examples of vows that Christians should not take. Answer
A Christian should not take a vow of perpetual chastity
A Christian should not take a vow of poverty
A Christian should not take a vow of blind obedience to superiors
Questions for Group Discussion

How is the name of the Lord being profaned in today’s society? What can be done to protect the Lord’s name from being used in vain?
Are those religious groups more right than wrong when they refuse to take oaths of any sort?
Chapter 24

The Civil Magistrate

Has God ordained civil magistrates and if so, what role has He provided them?Answer. God has ordained civil magistrates to rule over society for the public good. He has entrusted them with the power of war and death in order to defend and encourage all that do well.
Should Christians be directly involved in the political affairs of a nation?Answer. A Christian does not wrong to accept and carry out the duties of a magistrate when called upon.
List two responsibilities Christians have towards magistrates.Answer
Christians are to obey all legitimate authorities.

Christians are to pray for rulers and for all that are in authority

Questions for Group Discussion

Do you have any observation to make on various attempts to merge politics andChristianity in politics?
How can Christians be in the world but not of it?
Chapter 25

Marriage

What boundaries has God placed on the institution of marriage?
Answer

Marriage is to be between one man and one woman which means there is a divine prohibition on same sex intimate relationships Plural marriages are not to be entered into

List three reasons why God has ordained marriage.
Answer

God has ordained marriage for the mutual help of husband and wife
God has ordained marriage for the perpetuation of the human race ! God has ordained marriage for the prevention of illicit sexual activity
Whom may a Christian not marry? Answer
A Christian is not to marry a non-devote professing believer
A Christian is not to marry an infidel
A Christian is not to marry an idolater
What does God have to say about incestuous relationships?
Answer. The Word of God places strong prohibitions against intimate relationship involving blood or common ancestors.

Questions for Group Discussion

What safeguards can parents take to protect children from illicit sexual activity?
What can be done to strengthen marriages?
Chapter 26 The Church

Describe the invisible church.
Answer. The invisible church consists of the entire number of the elect, all those who have been, who are, or who shall be gathered into one under Christ

Who may be called visible saints?
Answer. All people throughout the world who professes the faith of the Gospel and obedience to Christ on its terms, and who do not destroy their profession by any errors which contradict or overthrow Gospel fundamentals, or by unholy behavior, are visible saints.

Will the true church ever become apostate?
Answer Christ always has had, and always will (to the end of time) have a kingdom in this world, made up of those who believe in Him, and make profession of His name.

Why is the Pope of Rome believed by many to be an expression of antichrist?Answer. Believing that the Lord Jesus Christ is the Head of the church over which
Is church membership in a local assembly important?
Answer Those whom the Lord calls to salvation He commands to walk together in particular churches for mutual edification and worship. Therefore, being a part of a local assembly is essential for gospel obedience.

What obligation to one another do church members have?
Answer. Church members willingly consent to walk together in Christian harmony.

List two functions that characterize the local assembly.
Answer

Proper worship
Proper discipline
What are the proper church leaders and how are they to be placed in positions ofauthority?
Answer Each local assembly has the privilege of choosing and setting apart in leadership positions those individuals they feel are biblically qualified to be pastors (elders or bishops) and deacons.

Describe the manner in which church leaders are to be set aside for spiritualleadership.
Answer. The church is to set aside qualified individuals by prayer and fasting followed by the laying on of hands.

What pastoral duties are to be performed and what is to be the relationship of apastor with his people?
Answer It is the duty of the pastor to minister the Word of God and to pray all the while watching over the souls of those entrusted to his care. It is the duty of the people to give proper respects to the pastor and to support him financially they he not is entangled in secular affairs.

Who may preach the Word?
Answer The Word of God may be preached by anyone who is gifted and qualified by the Holy Spirit for the task, and who has been approved and called by the church.

Is membership in a local assembly optional?
Answer. All believers are honor bound by gospel duty to unite with a particular church when and where they have opportunity to do so.

Is it right for a person to withdraw themselves from the local assembly becauseof a personal offense?
Answer No church members, because of a perceived offence given to them by a fellow member has a right to disturb church order in anyway or be absent from the meetings of the church or the administration of any ordinances on account of any such offence. On the contrary, they are to wait upon Christ in the further proceedings of the church.

Should local churches enter into fellowships with one another?
Answer. While local assemblies remain autonomous believers of like mind and faith ought to hold communion among themselves for peace, increase of love, and mutual edification.

When local churches of like mind and faith converse with one another what is tobe the nature of their fellowship?
Answer The nature of fellowship among local assemblies should be such that matters of difficulties or differences can be addressed but without the loss of the autonomy of the local assembly or the exercising of an ecclesiastical hierarchy.

Questions for Group Discussion

How has the “electronic church” media changed people’s attitudes toward the local assembly?
What style of worship do you feel most comfortable with: traditional, contemporary, or liturgical?
Chapter 27

The Communion of Saints

As a general principle do believers have an obligation to other believers?Answer Every believer has an obligation to perform gospel duties in a manner that will be for the mutual good of other members in the body of Christ. There is to be Christian love and the exercising of spiritual gifts.
Specifically, what are some obligations believers have toward one another?
Answer

Christians are to give relief to each other in outward things according to their different needs and abilities to meet them.
Christians are to provide first for members of their own families and church.
Christians may extend their generosity to all within the household of faith, as God gives the opportunity.
In the matter of giving there is to be no compulsion or infringement upon the personal ownership which each man has of his goods and possessions.
Questions for Group Discussion

To what degree should a local church be ecumenical?
What practical ways can a local assembly reach out to others of like faith and mind?
Chapter 28 Baptist and of the Lord’s Supper

What are two biblical ordinances appointed by Christ?
Answer

Christ appointed the ritual of baptism
Christ appointed the observance of His last supper
Who should administer the holy ordinances?
Answer These holy appointments are to be administered only by those who are qualified and called to administer them, according to the commission of Christ.

Questions for Group Discussion

Should communion be opened to all professing Christians regardless of church affiliation and doctrinal beliefs or closed to members of the local assembly?
Does it matter what form the elements (“bread” and “wine”) in communion are?
Chapter 29 Of Baptism

What does baptism signify?
Answer Baptism is designed to identify the believer with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection. The person is buried in the waters of baptism with Christ in the likeness of His death only to be raised in the likeness of His resurrection to walk in the newness of life.

Who should be allowed to partake of the biblical ordinances?
Answer Those who actually profess repentance towards God, faith in, and obedience to, our Lord Jesus Christ, are the only proper subjects for these ordinances.

Give the proper baptismal formula.
Answer Every believer is to be baptized in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Identify the proper mode of baptism.
Answer. It is best to immerse, or dip the person in water.

Questions for Group Discussion

What should a Baptist say to a person who firmly believes that their baptism as an infant is valid?
Should Christian’s be baptized forwards or backwards? Or does it matter?
Chapter 30

The Lord’s Supper

List five reasons why did Christ institute the Last Supper.
Answer

Christ instituted observance of the Last Supper as a perpetual remembrance showing forth the sacrifice of Himself in His death.
Christ instituted observance of the Last Supper to confirm believers in all the benefits of His death.
Christ instituted observance of the Last Supper for the believer’s spiritual nourishment and growth in Him.
Christ instituted observance of the Last Supper for the believer’s commitment to all gospel duties.
Christ instituted observance of the Last Supper as a basis for the believer’s communion with Him and with other believers.
Is Christ sacrificed afresh when the Communion meal is observed?
Answer In the ordinance of the Last Supper, Christ is not offered up to His Father, nor is there any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sin (of the living or the dead). There is only a memorial of that one offering up of Christ by Himself upon the cross once for all,

How is the Lord’s Supper to be administered and to whom?
Answer The appointed ministers of the church are to pray and bless the elements of bread and wine and offer both elements to the communicants.

Should one or both of the elements be denied to God’s people?
Answer. The denial of either element to God’s people is contrary to the nature of this ordinance, and to the institution of Christ.

Are the elements of the Lord’s Supper literally transformed into His body andblood?
Answer In substance and nature the elements always remain bread and wine. Only figuratively do the elements speak of the Lord’s body and blood.

Why is the doctrine of transubstantiation unacceptable?Answer
The doctrine of transubstantiation is not found in Scripture.
The doctrine of transubstantiation is contrary to common sense and reason
The doctrine of transubstantiation dismisses the nature of the ordinances
The doctrine of transubstantiation has been the cause of many superstitions ! The doctrine of transubstantiation encourages gross idolatries
How is Christ remembered and received through observance of the Last Supper?Answer. Not corporally but spiritually do Christians feed upon Christ crucified when they receive the elements of the Lord’s Supper.
Should some people not partake of the Lord’s Supper?
Answer It is possible to receive the element of the Lord’s Supper in such a manner that a person brings judgment upon himself.

Questions for Group Discussion

Was Judas Iscariot present at the Last Supper when Jesus instituted the Passover meal to be a memorial to remember His death until He returns? Is there any significance to his presence or absence?
How often should communion be taken: weekly, monthly, quarterly, once a year?
Chapter 31

The State of Man after Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead

Where does the soul of the righteous and the soul of the wicked go after death?Answer The souls of the righteous are made perfect in holiness, are received into paradise where they are with Christ, and look upon the face of God in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies. The souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torment and under darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day.
Can the Christian look forward to a bodily resurrection from the dead?
Answer. At the last day, those of the saints who are still alive shall not sleep but shall be changed. “Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, 52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed” (1 Cor. 15:51-52).

In the resurrection from the dead what happens to the bodies of the just and theunjust?
Answer The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonor. The bodies of the just shall, by His Spirit be raised to honour, and made conformable to His own glorious body.

Questions for Group Discussion

What should the Christian’s response be to someone who believes in re-incarnation?
Should it be permissible, as a form of therapy, to write letters to a loved one who hasdied?
Chapter 32 The Last Judgment

Describe what will happen at the last judgment.
Answer At the Last Judgment every person shall appear before the tribunal of Christ to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds, and to receive according to what they have done when in the body, whether good or evil.

Following the Last Judgment what shall happen to the righteous and to thewicked?
Answer The righteous will go into everlasting life and receive that fullness of joy and glory with everlasting reward in the presence of the Lord, but the wicked, who know not God and obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast aside into everlasting torments,

Contrast the attitude of the righteous with the unrighteous in regard to the LastJudgment.
Answer. The righteous is persuaded that there will be a Day of Judgment. Believing this there is a determent in sin and great consolation during days of adversity. In contrast the unrighteous embrace a carnal security and fail to be watchful for the Lord’ s return. They never say as the righteous do, ‘Come Lord Jesus, come quickly!’ Amen.

Questions for Group Discussion

How can Christians live joyfully yet seriously in light of the judgment to come?
What does the coming judgment mean to you personally?
What does being “God fearing people” mean?